Personality Disorders Schizotypal and Antisocial Term Paper

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¶ … Personality Disorders Schizotypal and Antisocial

According to the National Institutes of health Schizotypal is a psychiatric condition. This condition is typified by a pattern of deficits as it relates to interpersonal relationships ("Schizotypal personality disorder"). The personality disorder is also characterized by instability in behavior thought patterns, and appearance. The cause of this particular disorder is unknown but researchers believe that the development of the disorder is linked to genetics. This link has been made because some studies have found that relatives of schizophrenics are more likely to develop the disorder ("Schizotypal personality disorder"). The NIH also points out that Schizotypal is not the same disorder as schizophrenia ("Schizotypal personality disorder"). Although it is true that people with Schizotypal have unusual behaviors and beliefs, they do not tend to be as disconnected from reality and the disorder is not marked by hallucinations as is schizophrenia ("Schizotypal personality disorder").

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The symptoms of schizotypal include odd behaviors such as unussuall ocupations, fears and paranoia ("Schizotypal personality disorder"). NIH reports that people with this disorder also tend to have beliefs in things such as aliens and witchcraft. These unusual beleifs and behaviors tend to separate these individuals from having normal relationships. In addition the signs of this disorder include no close friends, innappropriate displays of feelings, odd speech and being uncomfortable in social situations ("Schizotypal personality disorder").

Although this is a serius condition, there are ways to treat the disorder including talk therapy and antipsychoticmedications. The NIH also points out that there are varius degrees of this disorder ("Schizotypal personality disorder"). However, in the majority of the cases it is chronic and although it can be treated the disoder cannot be cured ("Schizotypal personality disorder").

Antisocial Disorder

Term Paper on Personality Disorders Schizotypal and Antisocial According to Assignment

The National Institutes of Health describe antisocial disorder as a psychiatric condition in which the person with the illness eploits, manipulates, or violates the rights of other people. In many cases those with this disorder engage in criminal activity. The factors that contribute to the development of the disorder include abuse (ussually during childhood) and genetics ("Antisocial personality disorder"). The NIH asserts that individuals that have acholohic or antisocial parents are at an increased risk of developing the disease. In addiition men are more prone to developing the disease than are women.

Some of the early warning sugns of the onset of antisocial disorder include cruelty to animals and arson ("Antisocial personality disorder"). In addition, symptoms of the disorder include; a lack of guilt, habitual law breaking, a disreguard for safety. In addition individuals with this disprder an be witty and charming and often use these attributes to manipulate people ("Antisocial personality disorder"). In most cases the symptoms for antisocial disorder appear in the early 20's or late teen years ("Antisocial personality disorder").

This order is viewed as one of the most difficult of all personality disorders to treat ("Antisocial personality disorder"). Those that suffer with the disorder often do not seek treatment and may only get treatment if it is demanded by a court ("Antisocial personality disorder"). In addition the effectiveness of treatment for this disorder is not known ("Antisocial personality disorder").

Describe the following types of drugs: marijuana and cocaine.

Marijuana

Marijuana also known as Cannabis sativa is a green weed that grows fast in many different environments (Earleywine). The weed can actually grow to 20 feet, there are not many insects that attack this type of weed and there are few extremes in weather that prevent its growth (Earleywine). Marijuana leaves have five leaflets, which protrude from a narrow stem that is a part of the stalk. The author also explains that The jagged edge of each leaflet resembles the blade of a serrated knife. The species is dioecious, meaning both female and male varieties of the plant exist. The male grows taller, topped by flowers covered with pollen. The shorter female plant, with its larger, pollen-catching flowers, produces seeds and protects them with a sticky resin. The stalks help produce fiber; the seeds provide food and oil. The flowers, leaves, and resin appear in medical and intoxicating preparations (Earleywine 2000)."

The author explains that marijuana is used for medicinal, industrial and recreational purposes (Earleywine 2000). Recreational marijuana use is illegal in the United States but it is legal in other countries. Although marijuana use is prohibited by law it is still a popular drug that is readily available in America and around the world.

According to the National Institute on drug abuse marijuana is a mind altering drug that contains the active chemical known as THC (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol). The NIDA asserts that effect that marijuana has on an individual is dependent upon the potency of the Marijuana ("Marijuana"). The institute explains that this potency increases depending on the amount of THC that is in the marijuana and THC levels in marijuana has been increasing since the 1970s ("Marijuana").

Cocaine

Gootenberg (1999), reports that cocaine first appeared in the United States during the 1880's. For many decades cocaine was used for medicinal purposes until medical practitioners realized that cocaine had addictive side effects. The NIDA reports that cocaine is a stimulant that can be very addictive. The institute also explains that cocaine is taken from the leaf of the coca bush and is known as a schedule II drug and although it is high addictive it is still used in some ear, eye and throat surgeries ("Cocaine abuse and Addiction").

There are two forms of cocaine; the powdered form (hydrochloride salt) and the freebase form of the drug ("Cocaine abuse and Addiction"). The NIDA explains that the powdered form of the drug can be snorted or dissolved in water and taken intravenously ("Cocaine abuse and Addiction"). In most cases the street form of cocaine is diluted with cornstarch, sugar, and talcum powder ("Cocaine abuse and Addiction").

According to the NIDA once cocaine use becomes a habit the body develops a tolerance for the drug. This tolerance forces the individual to consume larger doses of the drug to get as high as they did the first time that the drug was used (How is Cocaine Used). The research also the manner in which it affects the deepest parts of the brain has a great deal to do with the addictive nature of the drug. Some research has also suggested that even when people have stopped using drugs for some period of time the very memory of "the euphoria associated with cocaine use, or mere exposure to cues associated with drug use, can trigger tremendous craving and relapse to drug use, even after long periods of abstinence (How is Cocaine Used)." The use of cocaine can have many medical side effects including heart attack, stroke, sudden death and seizures (How is Cocaine Used).

Explain the clinical picture of alcohol abuse and dependence.

Alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence have two different clinical meanings (Alcohol Abuse and Dependence). Alcohol dependence is a chronic illness that is also progressive. This illness is marked by the excessive drinking of alcohol, a growing tolerance for alcohol, the inability to stop drinking even after receiving medical and psychological help, and withdrawal symptoms are also present when the individual stops consuming alcohol (Alcohol Abuse and Dependence).

On the other hand alcohol abuse can be defined as a chronic disease in which an individual will not stop consuming alcohol even when ones family is being neglected because of the alcohol consumption (Alcohol Abuse and Dependence).

When alcohol abuse is not treated properly it can lead to alcohol dependence. Factors that are associated with alcohol abuse include personal problems involving family coworkers, and friends, legal problems associated with drinking such as DUI's, drinking at times when it is dangerous to do so and frequent consumption of alcohol (Alcohol Abuse and Dependence).

Whether is be alcohol abuse or dependency, there can be devastating consequences for those that consume alcohol in this manner and the people that love them. Long-term abuse of alcohol can lead to liver disease. In addition, if one consumes too much alcohol at one time it could result in alcohol poisoning which could lead to death. In addition to these medical consequences alcohol abuse and dependency have social implications as millions of innocent people have died because of drunk drivers (Alcohol Abuse and Dependence). In addition alcohol abuse can have negative effects on familial and work related relationships (Alcohol Abuse and Dependence).

Discuss the following sexual and gender variants: fetishism and masochism.

Fetishism

According to a book entitled, "Sexual Strands: Understanding and Treating Sexual Anomalies in Men," fetishism is defined as a preference for or a persistent sexual arousal associated with certain parts of the body or inanimate objects. The book explains that most fetishes are associated with male or female clothing (Langevin). Some research has even divided fetishes into one of the following four categories including the female body, special materials, animals, and clothing (Langevin).

In addition some research has found that certain materials are associated with fetishes. The author explains that characteristics such as leathery, glistening, metallic shining, silky,… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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