Term Paper: Personality Theory

Pages: 6 (2389 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 17  ·  Level: Master's  ·  Topic: Psychology  ·  Buy This Paper


[. . .] In a way the domains of individual differences which have similar surface manifestations are differentiated by the Big Five. Although it has only just started that we have begun to explicate the processes and structures which are underlying them. "Explication in explanatory and mechanistic terms will change the definition and assessment of the Big Five dimensions as we know them today" (as cited in John and Srivastava, 1990, p. 44).

Describe, compare and contrast the Big Five factors and the Big Three factors; the areas of experience, behavior and life that have been found to be related to each; and what relationships have been found in these areas.

Like its name, there are three broad superfactors whose importance is emphasized on in the Big Three model. These 3 superfactors are known as "neuroticism/negative emotionality" (N/NE) (John et al., 2008 Chapter 9, p. 268), "extraversion/positive emotionality" (E/PE) (John et al., 2008 Chapter 9, p. 268), and "disinhibition vs. constraint" (DvC) (John et al., 2008 Chapter 9, p. 268). The nested trait structure is defined by the Big Three and Big Five models. The Big Five model was developed originally in attempts to comprehend the trait descriptors of natural language (John & Srivastava, 1999). There are 5 broad factors that have been revealed by these extensive structural analyses. These factors are extraversion (or surgency), neuroticism (vs. emotional stability), agreeableness (vs. antagonism), conscientiousness (or dependability), and openness to experience (or imagination, intellect, or culture). Remarkable robustness has been shown by this structure as, in both the peer and self-ratings these 5 factors have emerged (e.g., McCrae & Costa, 1987), and in a wide range of cultures and languages cultures, and adults and children and adults (as cited in John et al., 2008 Chapter 9, p. 268).

It has been seen from some data that a differentiated and expanded version of Big Three is represented by these 5 factors. It has been seen that the DvC dimension of the Big Three is a complicated combination of (low) conscientiousness and agreeableness which means that the dis-inhibited individuals are more prone to be reckless, impulsive, manipulative, deceitful, uncooperative and carefree. "Taken together, these data indicate that one can transform the Big Three into the Big Five by (1) decomposing the DvC dimension into component traits of conscientiousness and agreeableness and (2) including the additional dimension of openness" (as cited in John et al., 2008 Chapter 9, p. 270).


Adler, A. (1927). The practice and theory of individual psychology. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World.

Block, J.H., & Block, J. (1980). The role of ego-control and ego-resiliency in the organization of behavior. In W.A. Collins (Ed.), Minnesota symposia on child psychology (Vol. 13, pp. 39-101). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Bri88s, S.R. (1989). The optimal level of measurement for personality constructs. In D.M. Buss & N. Cantor (Eds.), Personality psychology: Recent trends and emerging directions (pp. 246-260). New York: Springer-Verlag.

Buss, D.M. (1987). Selection, evocation, and manipulation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 53, 1214-1221.

Cantor, N. (1990). From thought to behavior: 'Having' and 'doing' in the study of personality and cognition. American Psychologist, 45(6), 735-750.

Cattell, R.B. (1990). Advances in Cattellian personality theory. In L.A. Pervin (Ed.), Handbook of personality: Theory and research (pp. 101 -- 110). New York: Guilford Press.

Digman, J.M., & Takemoto-Chock, N.K. (1981). Factors in the natural language of personality: Re- analysis and comparison of six major studies. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 16, 149 -- 170.

Dweck, C. (1996). Capturing the dynamic nature of personality. Journal of Research in Personality, 30, 348-362. (Available in ScienceDirect Health & Life Sciences College Edition database)

Eysenck, H.J. (1991). Dimensions of personality: 16, 5, or 3? -- criteria for a taxonomic paradigm. Personality and Individual Differences, 12, 773 -- 790.

Fiske, D.W. (1949). Consistency of the factorial structures of personality ratings from different sources. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 44, 329 -- 344.

Goldberg, L.R. (1992). The development of markers for the Big-Five factor structure. Psychological Assessment, 4, 26 -- 42.

Hogan, R. (1983). A socioanalytic theory of personality. In M.M. Page (Ed.), Nebraska Symposium on Motivation (pp. 55 -- 89). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.

John, O.P., and Srivastava, S. (1999). The Big-Five Trait Taxonomy: History, Measurement, and Theoretical Perspectives. Handbook of personality: Theory and research (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford.

John, O.P., Robins, R.W. And Pervin, L.A. (2008). Text: Chapter 5 The Five-Factor Theory of Personality. The Guilford Press.

John, O.P., Robins, R.W. And Pervin, L.A. (2008). Text: Chapter 9 temperament An Organizing Paradigm for Trait Psychology. The Guilford Press.

Larsen, R.J. (1989). A process approach to personality psychology: Utilizing time as a facet of data. In D.M. Buss & N. Cantor (Eds.), Personality psychology: Recent trends and emerging directions (pp. ! 77-193). New York: Springer-Verlag.

Maslow, A.H. (1954). Motivation and personality. New York: Harper.

McCrae, R.R., & Costa, P.T. (1987). Validation of the five-factor model of personality across instruments and observers. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 81-90.

Norman, W.T. (1963). Toward an adequate taxonomy of personality attributes: Replicated factor structure in peer nomination personality ratings. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 66, 574 -- 583.

Saucier, G. (1994). Mini- markers: A brief version of Goldberg's unipolar Big-Five markers. Journal of Personality Assessment, 63, 506 -- 516.

Stewart, A.J., & Healy, J.M., Jr.… [END OF PREVIEW]

Four Different Ordering Options:

Which Option Should I Choose?

1.  Buy the full, 6-page paper:  $26.88


2.  Buy & remove for 30 days:  $38.47


3.  Access all 175,000+ papers:  $41.97/mo

(Already a member?  Click to download the paper!)


4.  Let us write a NEW paper for you!

Ask Us to Write a New Paper
Most popular!

Personality Theory and Psychological Disorder Term Paper

Biography of Personality Theorist Term Paper

Personality and Communication Affect on Supervision Term Paper

Personality Theories of a TV Character Term Paper

Theory Application Substance Abuse Research Paper

View 1,000+ other related papers  >>

Cite This Term Paper:

APA Format

Personality Theory.  (2014, February 8).  Retrieved April 21, 2019, from https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/personality-theory-describe-discuss/1815293

MLA Format

"Personality Theory."  8 February 2014.  Web.  21 April 2019. <https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/personality-theory-describe-discuss/1815293>.

Chicago Format

"Personality Theory."  Essaytown.com.  February 8, 2014.  Accessed April 21, 2019.