Personality Therapy Term Paper

Pages: 7 (2507 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 0  ·  File: .docx  ·  Level: College Senior  ·  Topic: Psychology

SAMPLE EXCERPT . . .
The bottom line is to eliminate conditioned responses. Biofeedback is another form of therapy that works on internal behaviors. People can learn to do very subtle things to improve their physical and mental state (343)

Social cognitive learning theorists accepted learning theory, but felt that classical and instrumental conditioning were unable to explain a lot of human activity. For instance, how could conditioning explain the speed by which people could learn complex behaviors or could change the way they approached problems? Therefore, these professionals added cognitive learning (such as learning expectancies) and social learning (such as observational learning) to the list of essential learning processes.

In this perspective, there many therapy approaches. For example, cognitive behavioral modification assumes that personality problems arise from inefficient and harmful cognitions that enter someone's mind unnoticed. People make themselves believe that they cannot handle their stress or escape a negative situation. Therapy works to break the situation into smaller components that can be solved, accept emotions exist but can be handled and redirect behavior to react to the situation in a positive way.

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The phenomenological perspective stresses the individuality of a person's frame of reference that makes everyone different from each other. Phenomenology actually means "the subjective experiences of an individual." In other words, the subjective is much more important than the objective reality. Another aspect of this theory is that each person must determine what his/her life will be like. All people have free will, or the ability to be self-determined and directed. Some theorists in this area place an emphasis on self-determination and the positive nature of human beings. Others stress the subjective nature of people's perceptions and cognitions.

The process of therapy for this methodology is basically the process of reintegrating a partially disorganized self. This means, in part, reversing the process of defense and confronting the discrepancies between the factors of a person's experience.

Term Paper on Personality Therapy Personality Is Very Assignment

To these specialists, therapy is not something you fix and then forget about. Instead, it is a continual process with other life experiences.

Personal construct psychology is a related form of determinism. George Kelly saw people as driven by the need to cope with coming events in the world and all other aspects of behavior as deriving from this. Therapy in this mode is helping people successfully anticipate and interpret events through a system of constructs. Problems in behavior involve problems in interpreting or predicting events (423).

When people do not have proper constructs, they feel uncertain and helpless -- anxious. They get even more upset when realizing that they do not have any constructs to help them deal with interpreting experiences. Therapists help these individuals confront and reduce their anxieties, although this can be quite difficult.

Walter Mischel emphasized the interval organization of personality. That is, personality often changes according to a given situation and response to personality. He negated the fact that personality consists of broad, internal traits that are consistent across situations and time. He believed trait measures do a poor job of predicting behavior, because of situationism or when personalities vary from one context to another (457).

One aspect of this view is that some problems reflect deficits in basic cognitive or memory functions such as attending, extracting and organizing information. In addition, it is understood that there exists a limit to one's attentional capacity. If too much attention is spent in one area, less has to be spent somewhere else. Therapy helps people put faulty approaches to life aside and construct new ones. People have to learn how to recognize self-defeating thoughts and replace them with positive ones -- or reframing. Also, people are encouraged to view thought patterns as hypotheses to be tested not as certainties.

Finally, self-regulation consists of theoretical approaches that help people pursue the goals they set to help themselves. Feedback is used to adjust an action and then "feed back" a new perception that is rechecked against the reference. This is the most recent of all points-of-views on personality theories. It assists individuals develop goals that do not conflict with one another or to prioritize several goals and objectives.

The Western world is fast paced and complex. Every year, people become more and more overwhelmed with "all they have on their plates." Stress is mounting and increasing numbers of people are taking anti-anxiety and anti-depressant medicines. In addition to (or to eliminate) taking these pharmaceuticals, people need a way of coping with the daily stressors that continually arise. Many of the therapies noted deal with people who have major childhood traumas that require therapy for long periods of time or physical mental problems such as bipolarism that need specific medicines as well as therapy.

It appears that most people need a way to react to "here and now" anxieties: the deadlines of a project, the backup on the highway, the boss that demands too much, or the parent who is trying to be all things to all people. For people who cannot squeeze yoga or sports into a busy schedule, biofeedback can be very helpful. It can also be very helpful in assisting people lose weight, stop smoking or reduce or eliminate abusive behavior.

Biofeedback operates on the notion that people have the innate ability and potential to influence the automatic functions of their bodies through the exertion of will and mind. Stress causes muscles to tense and tighten. This, in turn, can produce other aches and pains, such as headaches or backaches. By helping individuals become more attuned to their internal body functions, biofeedback can control certain unhealthy conditions. By focusing on this information, one's mind becomes less preoccupied with the problems causing stress, which in turn causes fewer messages to be sent from the brain to the muscles telling them to stay tense. It increases awareness of one's own muscle tension and helps a person recognize tension when it first begins. Biofeedback training also teaches people ways to control tension before other symptoms have a chance… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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