Pharmaceutical Sexual Enhancements Thesis

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Sexual Enhancement

Viagra, Levitra, And Cialis

The objective of this work is to examine Viagra, Levitra and Cialis and how they work and as well this work will examine erectile dysfunction and the differences, side effects and enhancement of the sexual experience of each of these medications. This work will examine the effects of use of these medications by a young man and the manner in which commercials promoting these products instill fear into younger men about growing older.

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The work of Rosenfeld and Faircloth (2006) states that the introduction of Viagra, "the first oral treatment for impotence has changed the way men view problems with sexual performance. Today, men are more inclined to defined and treat their performance problems as medical problems than ever before, thanks in large part to Viagra." (Rosenfeld and Faircloth, 2006) the success of Viagra is described as a "cultural phenomenon" and it is stated that there is now a "burgeoning range of rival therapies for the treatment of impotence." (Rosenfeld and Faircloth, 2006) the Food and Drug Administration approved both Cialis, "an impotence treatment drug developed by the pharmaceutical companies Eli Lilly and ICOS Corporation" and Levitra "another pharmaceutical option being launched by Bayer and GlaxoSmithKline." (Rosenfeld and Faircloth, 2006) Both of these drugs, just as Viagra, "treat impotence by increasing blood flow to the genitals under the conditions of sexual arousal, thereby enabling the achievement and maintenance of a 'normal' erection." (Rosenfeld and Faircloth, 2006) the advent of these drugs is stated to reflect "an increasingly medicalized way of thinking about men's sexual problems and their treatment." (Rosenfeld and Faircloth, 2006)

I. Sidenafil (Viagra)

TOPIC: Thesis on Pharmaceutical Sexual Enhancements Assignment

Sidenafil (Viagra) is prescribed to treat erectile dysfunction (impotence; inability to get or keep an erection) in men. Sildenafil (Revatio) is used to improve the ability to exercise in people with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH; high blood pressure in the vessels carrying blood to the lungs, causing shortness of breath, dizziness, and tiredness). Sildenafil is in a class of medications called phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors. Sildenafil treats erectile dysfunction by increasing blood flow to the penis during sexual stimulation. This increased blood flow can cause an erection. Sildenafil treats PAH by relaxing the blood vessels in the lungs to allow blood to flow easily." (American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. 2009)

II. Directions for Use

Sildenafil does not cure erectile dysfunction nor does it increase sexual desire. (American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. 2009) Directions for use of this medication is to take it "...about 1 hour before sexual activity, but you can take the medication any time from 4 hours to 30 minutes before sexual activity. Sildenafil usually should not be taken more than once every 24 hours." (American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. 2009) There is a warning that in the presence of certain health conditions or when taking other medications that the doctor may prescribe the medication less often

The medication may be taken both with and without food however it is stated that when taken with a high-fat meal "it will take longer for the medication to work." If you have certain health conditions or are taking certain medications, your doctor may tell you to take sildenafil less often. You can take sildenafil with or without food. However, if you take sildenafil with a high-fat meal, it will take longer for the medication to start to work. It is important to follow the label on the prescription carefully and to ask the doctor to explain when the individual does not understand how they should take this medication. (American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. 2009, paraphrased) for the individual who is taking sildenafil for erectile dysfunction it is stated that the doctor will likely start them on a dose dependent upon the response of the individual o the medication. The individual should inform the doctor is the medication is not working well or if they are experiencing side effects.

III. Special Precautions

Prior to taking sildenafil it is stated that the individual should:

(1) Inform their doctor and pharmacist if you they are allergic to sildenafil or any other medications;

(2) Not take sildenafil if they are taking or have recently taken nitrates (medications for chest pain) such as isosorbide dinitrate (Isordil), isosorbide mononitrate (Imdur, ISMO), and nitroglycerin (Nitro-BID, Nitro-Dur, Nitroquick, Nitrostat, others). Nitrates come as tablets, sublingual (under the tongue) tablets, sprays, patches, pastes, and ointments. For the individual who is unsure if they are taking medications with nitrates it is stated that they should ask their doctor;

(3) Not take streets drugs containing nitrates such as amyl nitrate and butyl nitrate ('poppers') while taking sildenafil;

(4) Inform the doctor and pharmacists as to what prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, and nutritional supplements they are taking or plan to take. Be sure to mention any of the following: alpha blockers such as alfuzosin (Uroxatral), doxazosin (Cardura), prazosin (Minipress), tamsulosin (Flomax), and terazosin (Hytrin); amlodipine (Norvasc); certain antifungals such as itraconazole (Sporanox) and ketoconazole (Nizoral); anticoagulants ('blood thinners') such as warfarin (Coumadin); certain barbiturates such as butalbital (in Esgic-Plus, in Fioricet, in Fiorinal, others) and secobarbital (Seconal); beta blockers such as atenolol (Tenormin), labetalol (Normodyne), metoprolol (Lopressor, Toprol XL), nadolol (Corgard), and propranolol (Inderal); bosentan (Tracleer); cimetidine (Tagamet);efavirenz (Sustiva); erythromycin (E.E.S., E-Mycin, Erythrocin); HIV protease inhibitors including amprenavir (Agenerase), atazanavir (Reyataz), darunavir (Prezista), fosamprenavir (Lexiva), indinavir (Crixivan), lopinavir (in Kaletra), nelfinavir (Viracept), ritonavir (Norvir, in Kaletra), saquinavir (Fortovase, Invirase), and tipranavir (Aptivus); nevirapine (Viramune); other medications or devices to treat erectile dysfunction;medications for high blood pressure; certain medications for seizures including carbamazepine (Carbatrol, Epitol, Tegretol), phenobarbital, and phenytoin (Dilantin, Phenytek); rifabutin (Mycobutin); and rifampin (Rifadin, Rimactane);

(5) Inform their doctor what herbal products you are taking or plan to take, especially St. John's wort;

(6) Inform the doctor is they smoke, if they have ever had an erection that lasted for several hours, and if you have recently lost a large amount of body fluids (dehydration). This can happen if you are sick with fever, diarrhea, or vomiting; sweat a lot; or do not drink enough liquids. Also tell your doctor if you have or have ever had pulmonary veno-occlusive disease (PVOD; blockage of veins in the lungs); a stomach ulcer; heart, kidney, or liver disease; a heart attack; an irregular heartbeat; a stroke; chest pain; high or low blood pressure; high cholesterol; a bleeding disorder; blood circulation problems; blood cell problems such as sickle cell anemia (a disease of the red blood cells), multiple myeloma (cancer of the plasma cells), or leukemia (cancer of the white blood cells); conditions affecting the shape of the penis (e.g., angulation, cavernosal fibrosis, or Peyronie's disease); or diabetes. The individual should also tell their doctor if they or any of their family members have or have ever had an eye disease such as retinitis pigmentosa (an inherited eye condition that causes loss of vision) or if you have ever had sudden severe vision loss, especially if you were told that the vision loss was caused by a blockage of blood flow to the nerves that help you see;

(7) Inform their doctor if they are having surgery, including dental surgery, tell their doctor or dentist that you are taking sildenafil;

(8) Inform their doctor if they have ever been advised by a health care professional to avoid sexual activity for medical reasons or if they have ever experienced chest pain during sexual activity. Sexual activity may be a strain on your heart, especially if you have heart disease. If you experience chest pain, dizziness, or nausea during sexual activity, call your doctor immediately and avoid sexual activity until your doctor tells you otherwise;

(9) Inform their health care providers that they are re providers that you are taking sildenafil. If you ever need emergency medical treatment for a heart problem,… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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