Philosophy Plato's Works on Euthyphro, Apology Essay

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Philosophy

Plato's Works on Euthyphro, Apology, Crito and Phaedo

These four dialogues describe the discussion of Socrates during times of trial, imprisonment, and execution of Socrates. In the dialogues Euthyphro, approaches the court trying him of atheism, and corruption charges. Similar to how people question the relation of religion and social ethics. From this, Socrates challenges Euthyphro's argument that ethics be because of religion. Socrates presents his defense in the second dialogue the Apology. His defense outlines the reasons for devoting his life to challenge, and examine the influential and powerful people a process, which has result immense resentment, and his indictment. His argument in this dialogue is that instead of a trial he should receive a reward for serving his fellow citizens.

This makes one question how society should treat such cases. Should society charge individuals who challenge impunity or reward them. Socrates however fails to defend himself and receives a death sentence. Crito, Socrates friend tries to persuade him to flee the sentence, but in the course of their discussion, a question about civil foundation and moral law including treatment similar to the present emerges.

In Phaedo, the dialogue describes how the philosophers believe that the soul is immortal, and killing the body does not kill the soul. This raises questions about the soul in relation to immortality and its relationship to society and civil and moral laws.

Aristotle: The Nicomachean Ethics boos I-VI, VIII, X

These books describe the views on pleasure. Aristotle claims pleasure is good in Book VII. In Book X, he reserves this point claiming that a few good things are not necessarily pleasant such as good eyesight or intelligence. He claims that seeing well can bring pleasure from time to time, but this does not necessarily mean it is always pleasant. Questions rise about this claims if it Aristotle is right. Some scholars agree with Book X that Aristotle presents mature viewpoints about pleasure. Book VII seeks to highlight more about pleasure that it should direct individuals to act against their better judgment. In Book X, Aristotle presents his views on what makes a good life. Whereas moral values are perfect and necessary, rational contemplation is the most significant thing.

Thomas Aquinas: Principles of Nature, on Being and Essence, on Free Choice, Five Ways

According to the works of St. Thomas, there exists three forms of beings namely, material creatures, spiritual creatures, and God. From this argument, one notes that being is the essence. The five ways in Thomas works suggest that, with reference to observation of the world, a few things are in motion. In the second way, if one cannot agree to the first way, then that the individual does not require to conclude that God, who is the first mover, exists. According to the third way, the idea behind it appeals to Anselmian work of necessary existence although this work is different. The fourth way in Thomas' work assumes God to be the source of perfection in the world. This way is similar to the first and the second, which regards God as the cause of existence of beings, and the cause of their qualities. Thomas' fifth way in his work, which many refer to as the "Teleological Argument" suggests that lack of knowledge acts in the same, which in most cases is to obtain the best results.

Rene Descartes: Discourse on Method and Meditations

Many regard Discourse on methods by Descartes as contributing to modern philosophy. Looking at this work enable one to see, it is among the significant texts in the scientific revolution in the seventeenth century. Descartes' discourse forms the preference of his papers. This discourse drafts a new approach because of hypothesis, and deductions, which replace the traditional techniques from the works of Aristotle. This piece of work by Descartes puts the work in context by providing additional extracts from Descartes' correspondence, Rules for Guiding Intelligence, which sums up his physical theories.

The text in Descartes work seeks to provide an explaination to support that people do exist. Descartes takes an opposite side in this argument in considering anything of doubt as false in any instance. As an individual goes through the text of Descartes work, one sees the perception that Descartes tries to explain, Descartes claims that it is impossible for one to explain that we do exist. Further reading at the end of this part surprises the reader. Descartes ends by presenting a proof that God exist, a fact that he claims support the argument we do exist as well.

This change in perception at the end of this chapter comes at a point when Descartes says that although he previously thought everything does not exist, and is false, he at that point is thinking about the whole issue of existence. Descartes seems to suggest that even at the point when he doubts anything, he believes that he exists so that he can doubt. Questions arising from this chapter suggest a different ending of the text from the previous one.

Descartes easily convinces a reader about existence with thoughtful and organizing supporting points to this existence argument. Descartes claims that because he is thinking, it is evident that he does exist. Descartes presents the difference in dreams, and reality to demonstrate that his thinking of existence is a true, and a fact. Descartes argues the fact that is able to doubt existence means he exists. According to Descartes, nothing that does not exist can doubt anything. Descartes point in this argument makes a reader not doubt the fact of existence.

Blaise Pascal: Thoughts

According to this work, an individual knows the truth not only through reasoning alone, but by heart. In this way, one realizes the first principle including reasoning. An individual who is sceptic labors to no purpose. Pascal raises many questions from his claim that we do not dream, and that is impossible to prove otherwise by reason. This inability for individuals to prove this claim suggests the weakness of reason, and the uncertainty of knowledge. Pascal adds that according to the first principle of knowledge, as knowledge in time, space, motion, numbers, is sure as any from reasoning. According to Pascal, individual's thought should trust these intuition and base argument from them. This inability then should seek to serve only humble reason, which judges all, and not to indulge one's certainty thinking reason is capable of instructing individuals.

Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz: Discourse on Metaphysics Monadology

According to works of Leibniz on metaphysics, his work is a logical development on the theory of the monad. Leibniz suggests that Cartesian atoms subject to movement are not passive, but resistant as well. Leibniz unites these results to conceive a reality representing an infinite of points that lack all extension, but with activity. Lebniz refers as monad to these unextended centre forces. Another significant aspect of metaphysics that Leibniz captures in his work is the law of established harmony. According to Leibniz, these Monads, because they are unextended points, do not have the relation of causality with one another. These relations Lebniz suggests are attributed only to God, who develops the order, which every monad requires to have within itself, and among the relation to fellows from the moment of creation which is the pre-established harmony. Leibniz uses the example to relate this work to real life with the example of a watchmaker who selects, and assembles every part of a watch together.

David Hume: Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion

The dialogues in David's work concern natural religion. These are series of the discussion about the nature of religion between fictional characters Cleanthes, Demea, and Philo. The intention of Humes clearly points out the question about the existence of God, and the supposed origin of religious morals, which Humes suggest a focus on two issues.… [END OF PREVIEW]

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