Physical Education Teacher Burnout and PE Teacher Concerns Literature Review Chapter

Pages: 25 (8932 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 25  ·  Level: Master's  ·  Topic: Teaching

¶ … Aaker (1991, p13) it is the general aim of all researchers not only to discover new information but as much as possible to build on what other people have already done in the field. This is particularly important as these works whether published or unpublished can serve as a cheaper source of mobilizing data. It also helps the researcher to put the issues under consideration into the right perspective. This researcher was not an exception. This part of the research examines the work of other researchers in order to broaden the frontiers of knowledge. In all instances adequate and due references are given for the purpose of future studies and subsequent verification of the facts.

Background of Research

Alliance for Excellent Education has been at the forefront of inquiry into the statistical revelation of or the growth of high turnover of teacher in both first and second cycle institutions across the globe. The Organisation reports in its quarterly bulletin that nearly 23% of teacher turnover recorded in the last five years has increased to about 31.32% as at the end of the year 2008. It is the estimation of the entity that the number of teacher turnover is expected to reach the 35.44% threshold by the close of the first decade of the twenty first century. This state of affairs has reignited the work of researcher into the possible causes of this state of affairs. Paramount among this but which is generally of not specific interest is the issue of teacher burnout. The situation among physical education teachers is even more precarious as the global trend of the debilitating effects of burnout among this group of teachers has reach an alarming level.

United Nations Education Scientific and Cultural Organisation which is the UN's body in charge of issues of education has disclosed that the problem of burnout among educators brings emotional, attitudinal and physical exhaustion crisis and other very costly consequences for both the teacher and those with whom he/she works.. The individual consequences of burnout may be in the form of psychosocial, psychological some of which include lack of low self-esteem, clinically signi-can't depressive symptoms and low self con-dence (Schonfeld, 2001). In addition, individuals who feel particularly ineffective report low job satisfaction which is usually accompanied by resentment, frustration, boredom, irritability, anger, and helplessness (Blase, 1982). According to Grayson and Alvarez (2008) burnout if not prevented can result to psychopathology and deterioration in social and family relations (Cano-Garcia, Padilla-Munoz, & Carrasco-Ortiz, 2005) while physical well-being of the teacher can be compromised because of the experience of burnout.

The justification to contain burnout as much as possible is further justified by the recent disclosure by (Blase, 1982). that burnouts are responsible for physical challenges such as head- ache, frequent colds ?u and serious cardiovascular symptoms have been linked to burnout (Hock, 1988; Schonfeld, 2001). In addition to the personal rami-cations resulting from burnout, substantial costs are also incurred by the school including increased teacher absenteeism, turnover, career change, mental health and medical claims, deteriorating performance and early retirement (Burke, Greenglass & Schwarzer, 1996). But Davis (2008) claims that this is not the only trouble the teaching profession in particular and the education sector in general have with burnouts. He is of the view that teachers who are burned-out may have reduced tolerance for classroom behavior problems.

In 2005, Kokkinos, Panayiotou, and Davazoglou found out a signi-can't association between burnout and the ratings of antisocial and oppositional student behaviors in a survey to determine the link burnout to the perceived severity of 24 undesirable student's behaviour among teachers. It was also disclosed that teachers negativity may create a cycle in which students behaviour problems are then exacerbated which strengthen the bi-directional aversive relationship between teachers and students. Against this background of an imminent social catastrophe of no mean proportion, an examination of the Burnout, its definitions from across the length and breadth of the research divide and measurement tools and methods is inevitable.

2.3 Burnout and measurement

The term burnout lends itself to a number of definitions Santinello, (1990) defines the term as psychophysical state accompanied by apathy, detachment and coolness in interpersonal relations by feelings of emotional exhaustion of ones psychic resources and of helplessness. For Malach-Pines (1982) burnout comes up as a multidimensional syndrome defined by three independent features namely emotional exhaustion, depersonalization in human relations and low personal accomplishment. It is argued by Slavin (1996) that the term is a psychological term for the experience of long-term exhaustion and diminished interest dominant among general practitioners while Maslach and Jackson (1981) originally de-ned burnout as a syndrome of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment. Even though the various definition does not considerably depart from the theme of the others apart from variation in their choice of word, the definition of burnout by Freudenberger and Richelson (1980) as a state of fatigue and weariness or loss of physical and mental energy, resulting from exaggerated aspirations to achieve unrealistic goals set by oneself or by society's values is generally perceived as an average definition of the problem of burnout and has been the operating definition for a lot of researches into this syndrome.

It is asserted by Cohen, (1994) that the term was first used in the mid 1970s to define a syndrome peculiar to the helping professionals, such as social workers who because of their job are constantly under stress. He argues that despite the diversity in definitions due to its adoption in different time frame and environment, the central theme posits that the symptoms of burnout are physical and mental fatigue coupled with dissatisfaction with individual, intellectual, professional and self-fulfillment. (Tolman, 1990). The adoption of the term to the teaching profession has a long history and sometimes draws debates as to the distinction between burnout and stress. It is argued by Slavin (1996). that teacher burnout like all other professions traces its roots to three distinct but complementary risk factors namely personality factors, occupational hazards and specific work environment conditions. It sometimes reveals itself as when a teacher cannot perform the day-to-day duties of teaching due to a sense of tiredness, frustration, exhaustion and/or hopelessness. The teacher either leaves the situation or stays in the same position or in general is unsuccessful or ineffective as a teacher. Sometimes, it comes as a teacher's loss of idealism and enthusiasm for work (Putnam 2000).

Other researchers have also identified the syndrome in an extreme type of role specific alienation with a focus on feelings of meaninglessness especially as this applies to the teacher's ability to successfully reach students (Wood M, 2000). Finally the syndrome results in teacher's inability to protect themselves against threats to their self-esteem and well being (Rink, 2005). He further reveals that a number of personality traits influences the behaviour of people in general and teachers in particular and hints that those who have high aspirations, strong achievement drive and high work standards are more prone to burnout as these ambitions will elude them in the long run. It is seen that the causes of burnout in this instance is inherent or based on the personality of the individual involve and not only on external impact.

The occupational hazard as a risk factor refers to societies view and perception of who a teacher is and what he ought to be. Faber argues that the teacher is perceived as an instructor, a moral educator and a character builder. A teacher is considered as of equal value and importance as schools, families and religious agencies when it comes to societal perception. In often times, teachers are unable to meet the challenges or even when they are, their performance is measured according to standards that he or she has no control over. In such instances of failure to meet this standards the teacher may develop feelings of inadequacy that results in burnouts. Lotan (2003) asserts that the nature of the teachers work makes him easily prone to burnout because like other associated profession, the teacher deals with a pupil who have come from different orientations be it political, cultural, religious etc. These Children exhibits ways of life that may not be in conformity with the views and doctrines of the teacher.

Also it is common knowledge that schooling despite it immense benefit and the desire of people to be educated is pursued with a lot of resistance even though this may be linked to other sources other than the pupils own desire in such a situation, the teacher's role as a disciplinarian can be a source of burnout. The character molding process is considered to be a child rearing duty. It involves having to bring a 'near-animal' to the status where he or she can fit into the society and behave like one. The teacher is expected to burn over backward in order to accommodate all manner of abuse from his or her students. There are no general work environment conditions related to burnout for school. These are… [END OF PREVIEW]

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