Physics of Missiles Thesis

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Physics of Missile

According to laws that govern physics, in order to reach targets in excess of 100 miles, 'ballistic missiles' should be able to fly via the 'outer space'. This is due to the fact that a usual ballistic follows a trajectory of an arch which is almost a 4th 'as high as it is long'. Thus, even a missile having a range level of about 100 miles is required to fly in excess of 1,25,000 feet. This implies traveling over the atmosphere of the earth into the space. 'Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles -- ICBM' have the ability to soar at a height of 1000 miles and remain in the outer space for nearly 30 minutes or so. 'Ballistic missiles' in order to attain longer distances are required to fly at higher ranges primarily for 2 factors. Technically, in case the apex of their trajectory was very low, the warhead might not have the necessary time to travel further before the gravity of the earth drew in to the ground. Hence traveling into the 'space' is important in order to take the advantage of time. (Physics of Ballistic Missiles)

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Secondly, in case a missile is required to fly through oceans and continents in about 30 minutes in the absence of moving away from the space, it might 'burn up' via air friction before it attained the needed speed. Apart from that, the primary endeavor to travel via the air might expend a huge amount of fuel which the missile might exhaust its fuel much prior to 'burning it up'. Obeying the law of physics, missiles could attain increased speeds only in the atmosphere outside, hence traveling in major part via space is important with regard to the missile to travel at increased speeds and still survive. Therefore ballistic missiles are considered to be important weapons for outer atmosphere. (Physics of Ballistic Missiles) Thesis statement: Missile is necessary for modern warfare for successfully combating enemy targets.

Discussion

Thesis on Physics of Missiles Assignment

Law of physics govern that in order to attain increased outcomes from propulsion as well as an increased level of thrust with regard to 'fuel weight' ration, the propulsion ought to be lesser in the initial stages and rise with the decrease in air resistance. Air resistance necessitates the need for ballistic missiles as air resistance makes long-range guns impossible. It is only due to air resistance that ballistic missiles burn well into the atmosphere outside. The increased number of times a missile devotes for boosting and particularly in outer atmosphere, the greater is its susceptibility to enhance stage defenses. The height attained by missiles goes to determine the speed with which they descend on their targets. The speed is significant since higher the speed, the more problematic it is for the defenses at the ground-level to perform their job. Evidently, longer the range for which the missile has to travel, the high levels the missile has to attain in order to attain it. And to high levels it tries to reach, the increased amount of time it consumes for coming to the ground. (Physics of Ballistic Missiles)

The longer it takes, the more amount of time is required for gravity to act on it to enable it travel at increased speeds. As gravity increases the warhead in the direction towards downward at a velocity of 10 meters at each second, and an 'intercontinental missile' might be descending from an altitude level of 1200-1600 kilometers and it might gain speeds in the range of 6 to 8 kms per second prior to hitting the atmosphere. Next it is the speed of the warhead at which it is arriving that is crucial as it impacts the amount of time the defender at the target point of the attack has at hand to visualize it coming and attack it prior to getting hit. The faster the warhead, the faster it is going to narrow the distance amongst the point where it is viewed for the first time and the target. This implies that higher the speed of the warhead, the proximity to the target it is going to be prior to it getting stopped. An interceptor which is faster might hit it farther way compared to a slow one. However, the distance among the bull's eye and the intercept is found out primarily by the speed of the warhead and also with regard to its 'distance from the bull's eye' wherein the same is witnessed for the 1st time and the interceptor is fired. Hence, time is the most important factor regarding the maximum distance the warhead could be kept at bay. (Physics of Ballistic Missiles)

Among the various types of missiles, the cruise missile is the most common type which is fundamentally a small airplane flying on its own. The wingspan of a cruise missile can extend up to 8.5-foot and these have turbofan engines flying 500 to 1,000 miles based on the configuration. The cruise missile culminates its journey by delivering a 1000 pound or 450kg high explosive bomb to a precise location that is the target. On explosion the missile gets destroyed. The following figure shows a Conventional Air Launched Cruise Missile -- CALCM. (How Cruise Missile Works)

This apart, Anti-ship Cruise Missile -- ASCMs are among the latest and are long-range weapons for naval battle and are manufactured specifically make ships their target. Because of their stealth, precision and low cost, these have come to be the arsenal that is preferred for militaries across the world. More than half of the attacks were unleashed through ASCMs on merchant shipping by Iraq and Iran during the Tanker War. (Missiles)

A sequence of operations must be followed for the ASCM to function in a proper manner as follows (i) Target locating with scanning radars or spotters: Some of the ASCMs locate their targets through the use of radars. This method needs the launcher to get a line of sight to the target, restricting the range of the missile to the horizon of the radar and preventing the missile spotting a target which is veiled by any barriers to the terrain. While the Cold War was on, the superpowers devised another targeting method which is over the horizon targeting mainly in an effort to broaden the range of their missiles. Using this method, a launch technician either programs the flight path of a missile, or a set of target coordinates, and the missile just makes its flight to the target area. Over the horizon targeting needs a spotter to relay the target coordinates to the shooter, however the target shooter does not need to really be able to see the target himself. This method of targeting has some to be significantly simpler to use in recent years because of the easy presence of GPS navigation devices. (Missiles)

(ii) the missile must launch correctly: Missiles have a booster kit that directs the missile from the launching platform to a required speed and altitude to facilitate the missile to transition the cruise flight mode. Every type of ASBM makes use of its own propellant which is of types solid and liquid. Liquid propellants need complicated piping and pumping components in order to feed their engines and need more time to ready for the launch. However they provide greater thrust as also in-flight throttle. On the other hand solid propellants do not require intricate engines but they depend on complicated chemistry at the time of production and on powerful casings to be able to bear the high pressures which they produce at the time of the flight. (Missiles)

(iii) Accurate guidance: A lot of ASCM make use of radar to locate the position of the target right through the flight of the missile. This principle of guidance needs the missile or the launcher to keep a continuous radar lock on the target, showing its position as also restricting its maneuverability. Losing the radar lock would normally render the missile to miss the target. Missiles of the modern age which are directly driven by the navigation computer suffer from a lot of errors on the navigation front. Sometimes inertial guidance systems float while in flight that can put a considerable influence on the precision during long distances. However, modern inertial navigation systems -- INS receive updates from GPS receivers or other devices which improve accuracy to a great extent. (Missiles)

(iv) Acquire the target with the terminal guidance: Upon approaching the confines of the target, the missile turns on its terminal guidance system. Majority of the ASCMs utilize radar or infra-red seekers, often on multiple bands to evade the electronic counter attacks which warship targets normally position. The often ocean gives few radar returns or heat signatures within the striking distance of the target ship and hence the missile has increased possibility to hit the planned target. In regions where there is more traffic in terms of more ships near coastlines, terminal guidance system may falter and choose the wrong target. (Missiles) Graphics showing different types of missile may… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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