Multiple Chapters: Picture of How Nonprofit Organizations

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[. . .] Experts debate whether or not there is an advantage or a disadvantage to either approach. The methods by which non-profits engage in procurement is multidimensional. Thus, questionnaires are generally ideal when they ask more specific and focuses questions, rather than ask for global judgment regarding the best ways non-profits have gathered money. Clarity however is key, the most focused each question is, and the easier it is to compare effective procurement with the distinct elements of raising money. "The form of answers offered to the respondent in the questionnaires varies. The simplest form of response is 'yes' or 'no.' The advantages of simplicity of this format are, according to many survey analysts, outweighed…This is a major problem given the overall need to maximize the variability of responses in any survey. Therefore most survey questionnaires now favour more than two alternative responses per question" (Fitzpatrick, 1991).

Techniques like these offer all respondents more opportunities to express their opinions and all the related complexities of their viewpoint regarding this issue. More significantly, this type of question-drafting is able to bolster the apparent reliability of items as the number of responses that are given is increased (Fitzpatrick, 1991). "In practice the gain in precision or reliability of increasing the possible answers beyond seven is minimal, and generally five response categories are used. More advanced questionnaires tend to be developed from more general principles of attitude measurement" (Fitzpatrick, 1991).

The open-ended nature of the questions of this survey are intended to minimize issues like response bias and the refusal of certain participants in answering questions. "Nonresponse error occurs when a significant number of subjects in the sample do not respond to the survey and when they differ from respondents in a way that influences, or could influence, the results" (Draugalis et al., 2008). These are all things which can result from the survey respondents engaging in a different manner from those who are non-respondents and thus, not representative of the target population (Draugalis et al., 2008). Thus, before even engaging in the survey and the collection of data, the follow-up procedures (such as the timing, method and quantity) need to be followed up on as intensively as possible. In this case, the follow up approach will occur in six months with each non-profit organization, engaging in an informal interview with the representative who completed the survey in the first place to determine any changes, updates or discoveries since the survey had been completed. "While large sample sizes are often deemed desirable, they must be tempered by the consideration that low response rates are more damaging to the credibility of results than a small sample. Most of the time, response bias is very hard to rule out due to lack of sufficient information regarding the no respondents" (Draugalis et al., 2008). This means that it is absolutely critical that researchers sculpt and mold their survey approaches so that they can optimize their response rates in a successful manner. This is also crucial in bolstering credibility to meet and match all acceptable levels of scientific rigor especially in connection to the transparency of the response rate and the overall representativeness of generalizability of the results of the study (Draugalis et al., 2008).

Survey Design: Other Items to be Included

It's quite common in survey research to include what are generally referred to as "background variables" such as social and demographic variable which generally have a specific value in regards to the means of procurement as things like one's level of education, social class, and even marital status may influence people greatly on all degrees of successful fund procurement (Fitzpatrick, 1991). "It is often difficult to clarify whether the relation between such variables and satisfaction is due to differences in expectations and readiness to express negative views or actual differences" (Fitzpatrick, 1991). This highlights the extreme necessity for a reliable means of conducting research and of drafting survey questions so that experts who work in these fields can truly reveal information that has a more illuminating quality.

Survey Design: Developed Survey Questions

The main survey questions developed for these non-profit groups are as follows:

1. What challenges do Non-for Profit organizations like procurement processes face?

2. In what ways Non-for-Profit organizations procurement activities can be improved?

Other questions which will be added to this survey will be as follows:

3. What processes could be added to increase the level of efficiency and effectiveness of public procurements?

4. What processes could be removed to the procurement methods in order to increase the level of efficiency and effectiveness of public procurements?

5. What regulations would you like to see the government adopt in order to improve the procurement policies for non-profits?

6. How can technological development improve procurement policies and what can nonprofits do more aggressively to harness technology for procurement?

7. What developments in technology do you think will more aggressively improve the procurement process?

8. Would you be open to "public procurement partnerships, why or why not?

9. What relationship in the last year has been most beneficial to your procurement endeavors?

10. What risks have been involved in previous performance endeavors? Identify the three most pressing ones.

11. What have you learned or found most revelatory about former performance endeavors?

12. Determine how power has influenced your supply chain in one overall positive way.

13. Determine how power has influenced your supply chain in one negative way.

14. How do personal relationships in business influence your decision-making process?

15. How does a dependency on certain relationships influence your ability to engage in procurement? What are these relationships (list three).

16. Is having a culturally diverse staff advantageous in procurement? What are the most obvious benefits and drawbacks?

17. How is information-sharing important within procurement and what are some of the sensitivities and concerns of this function?

18. How can collaborative supply planning benefit the overall process of procurement and what changes should be made to make this overall process as streamlined as possible?

These questions represent some of the most pressing concerns that orbit around the needs of procurement and function to represent some of the most fundamental factors which can influence successful or unsuccessful procurement. For instance, power and dependence are such nuanced topics and can have truly weighty influence on the entire process; it is worth determining how it functions or fails to function within the procurement journey, by asking sample participants to really scrutinize their answers. "The power and dependence in channels of distribution by noting that channel member dependence and sources of power in marketing channels are conceptually inseparable and dependence is a component or dimension of these power sources rather than a separate phenomenon (Brown et al., 1995). Power plays a significant role in the supply chain, and the different sources of power have differing impact on inter-firm relationships and the performance of the entire supply chain (Maloni and Benton, 2000). Channel members indifferent cultures may have different perceptions of power sources" (Kipkorir, 2012). Numerous academic scholars have placed attention on the importance of power and dependence, there are still investigations as to how power and dependence can impact procurement.

Likewise, information sharing can obviously improve the ways in which funds are procured and in which companies do business, something can that can have an intensive impact on supply chain operations not to mention procurement in the bigger and smaller picture (Kipkorir, 2012). When information such as inventory levels, forecasted data, sales trends and a minimized cycle time, means that orders are fulfilled faster, with a higher level of accuracy. Information sharing is something that can flourish inside and outside of all domains of corporate operational activities. "Starting from the development chain process where information sharing can happen in the product design stages and product life cycle management activities with both internal and external partners. In the customer chain processes information sharing can help in formulating customer experience strategies, increase customer service effectiveness and operations (Dewett and Jones, 2001)" (Kipkorir, 2013). It's also worthwhile acknowledging the psychological barriers that do exist around information sharing that can cause disadvantages; however, many of these disadvantages can be assuaged by creating effective business policies, agreements and business plans that enterprises can aptly harness for their own benefit. Such things can help in mitigating the fear of information sharing and bolster efficiency creating new opportunities for all involved eventually (Kipkorir, 2013).

These surveys were given to four different non-profit organizations which were strongly associated with the UN. Appropriate representatives at each organization were asked to complete the surveys as comprehensively as possible; the first two questions they were all told they absolutely could not skip. The following questions they were told to answer as fully as they could and to the absolute best of their ability.

Survey Design: Findings

For question one, survey participant one and two cited issues with understanding the procurement application process. Survey participants three and four cited problems with being able to follow all… [END OF PREVIEW]

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Picture of How Nonprofit Organizations.  (2013, September 29).  Retrieved August 20, 2019, from

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"Picture of How Nonprofit Organizations."  September 29, 2013.  Accessed August 20, 2019.