Police Crisis Intervention Training Term Paper

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¶ … philosophers have spouted doctrinal differences and a wide variety of theories that tend to relate such differences in more concrete terms. Currently many of these theories are still studied, discussed in a vigorous manner and espoused by many as the panacea of life itself. Differences seem to be along the lines of either the analytic viewpoints or the personal experience viewpoint. Analytics often has as its focus language, science and mathematics, while the personal experience viewpoint often focus' on the experiences the individual has throughout life, and especially the affects each experience has on that individual.

Phenomenology is among the theories espousing that personal experiences are the reason for living. In a recent book review on the Things Themselves: Phenomenology and the Return to the Everyday the author wrote, "The tale breathtakingly illustrates the truism that we deepen the grasp of our own culture by encountering one that differs from it significantly" (Lawrence, 2007, p. 156). The key to phenomenology seems to be that the individual experience as many different cultures and various events throughout life as seemingly possible.

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Phenomenology is a philosophy that considers both the events themselves, as well as the effects on the individual experiencing such events. Experiencing these events in different ways has led to the philosophy of phenomenology. Different types or styles of phenomenology have being described in different ways. Dialectical phenomenology and transcendental phenomenology are two of the more common descriptions, and they are often confused with each other.

TOPIC: Term Paper on Police Crisis Intervention Training Assignment

The dialectical aspect seeks to discover the absolute, ontological, logical and metaphysical spirit behind the phenomena, while the transcendental seeks to extract the essential components of the experience, the essence of the specific event. The philosophy itself has been described as the study of 'being'. One report states, "The phenomenological orientation is distinguished by systematic attention to feeling qualities, intentions, ascribed identities, and presuppositions about objects" (Zagorin, 1999). Not only are the different approaches to phenomenology, there are also different attitudes within the various studies. A study states that, "the creation of knowledge is a collaborative effort between many parties, among them, philosophers, theorists and practitioners" (Berci, Griffith, 2005, p.405). This is especially true in regards to the many approaches espoused concerning phenomenology.

Many of the approaches include differences based on gender, or the way the two different genders view the same type of experiences. This difference in perception has led to contention and dissension even within the ranks of the phenomenologists. What is ironic in nature is that many of the experts who disagree one with another use as support for their positions opinions based on how they feel concerning their perceptions of events.

Since phenomenology has been described as the study of the entire being, there is a lot of room and flexibility to the theory. "The phenomenological orientation is distinguished by systematic attention to feeling qualities, intentions, ascribed identities, and presuppositions about objects" (Lawrence, p. 156).

Qualities, intentions, identities and presuppositions in phenomenology terms are all components that enhance or support a person's being. An archetype is generally understood to be an idealized model of an individual, personality or a behavior. One famous philosopher, Carl Jung, took phenomenology to a different level, but much of Jungian philosophy is complementary to phenomenology. Jung was famous for developing archetypes. Phenomenology's focus on qualities of experience are comparable Jung's archetypes. Additionally, Jung collaborated with a number of other philosophers including Wolfgang Pauli, and between the two of them, they were able to change the way many philosophers viewed phenomenology. In fact, one article touted the opinion that between Pauli and Jung the theory of synchronicity was transformed into an understandable principle.

Jung and Pauli's common reflections went far beyond psychology and physics, entering into the realm where the two areas meet in the philosophy of nature. In fact, as a consequence of their collaboration, synchronicity was transformed from an empirical concept into a fundamental explanatory-interpretative principle" (Marialuisa, 2004, p. 707). Synchronicity, as defined by Jung, is known as a relationship between ideas, especially when that relationship is not causal. Jung wrote that synchronicity was when the cause and effect of relationships between ideas were simultaneous. He also wrote that synchronicity goes hand in hand with presuppositions. Presuppositions have to do with assuming that truth is evident in certain statements, discourses and ideas.

A presupposition is normally considered a background belief that does not change in different circumstances. Presuppositions are also different than prior experiences. Prior experiences are what all individuals have in their life, and consequently they influence the individuals perceptions.

Presuppositions are likely different based on the experience(s) of the specific individual, but both presuppositions and prior experiences influence the individual.

One recent study showed "prior experiences were influencers to novice nurses; second, connections were central to making meaning through intuition; and third, dimensions of time, space, and touch proved to be significant in facilitating intuition" (Ruth-Sahd, Tisdell, 2007, p. 115) and intuition is part of what phenomenology is all about. Experiencing life's travails allows the individual to become more intuitive as to other similar instances and occurrences throughout his or her lifetime.

Presuppositions are can be compared to prior experiences in that they show the truth of certain circumstances. Both presuppositions and prior experiences are considered when practicing the theory of phenomenology. A good example of a presupposition would be to ascertain the answer to a question such as; Would you like to do that again? The presupposition in this case would be that the individual had done it before. Another example would be if the individual were to say, 'my dog got hit by a car and killed today'. The presupposition is that the speaker had a dog. Comparing that to a prior experience it becomes evident that they refer to two separate connotations.

Knowing the difference between the two is especially important regarding this particular case study. Police officers who are being questioned for this study may couch their responses in terms of what they believe is truth, or they could be perceiving such truths in context with experiences they have already had in their careers. It is equally important then, if presenting this case study with a methodology that is primarily phenomenological in context, to ascertain a number of factors regarding the responses in this case. A couple of those factors could include how old the police officers are, how long they have been on the force, how their family has influenced them during their career(s), and even if and when they have been involved in any violent situations. Another important factor could be the intuition derived from all of the above factors and how that intuition is employed in various circumstances.

Phenomenology allows for the consideration of these factors, and it is important to remember that there are earlier influences on each individual as they experience life. One expert writes, "Phenomenology as a way of opening is concerned with pre-understanding (Johnson, 2006, p. 73) and in that same article the author states that "Philosophical concepts fluctuate because they always turn on preliminary questions (Johnson, p. 74).

One recent study of novice nurses during the first year of their career showed that, "Ruth-Sahd and Hendy investigated novice nurses and found that they do indeed value intuitive knowing and covertly rely on intuition in their practice" (Ruth-Sahd, Hendy, 2005, p. 450). Intuition is a strong factor in the nursing profession, and is likely to be even more a factor for people involved in the law enforcement field. Intuition can be described as a basis for making decisions in life and one recent article ascribed to the theory that, "One of the most important human skills is our ability to use judgment and make choices, in other words, to make decisions. Both at personal and interpersonal levels, decision-making skill strongly affects quality of life" (Nichols, 2006, p. 40). The decision to participate in this specific study could be a factor in the results of the study according to the phenomenology methodology. Much of that intuition is derived from experiences in life. In a study conducted by Ruth-Sahd and Tisdell, they found that "First, prior experiences were influencers to novice nurses; second, connections were central to making meaning through intuition; and third, dimensions of time, space, and touch proved to be significant in facilitating intuition" (Ruth-Sahd, 2007, p. 116).

All of these factors can be considered when employing a methodology such as phenomenology. Intuition, presuppositions, and prior experiences all have some influence over the individual, especially if the individual is seeking fulfillment and the realization of a 'whole being'. Intuition is derived from those experiences.

Ruth-Sahd, in regards to determining whether such factors as intuition have influence over novice individuals finally determined that; "What all this literature suggests is that adult learners in nursing education settings utilize many different ways of knowing in an attempt to make meaning, including the cognitive or rational, the affective, the somatic, and the spiritual or symbolic domains" (2007, p. 136).

Carl Jung's theory as described… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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