Thesis: Police Reform in Post-Authoritarian Brazil

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[. . .] 2) This particular research will also be of immense help for policy formulators in metropolitan police departments and in police departments of small vicinities, in making effectual judgment regarding relevant development.

3) The material along with the conclusion of this particular study will certainly enhance and modernize the methodologies of the investigations linked to job performance and challenges related to police development in Brazil.

Chapter 2: Literature Review

Section 1: Police and Crime in Brazil

Since the last ten years the focus of the Brazilian establishment concerning the protection of the civil society has been on the conglomeration out of three immense spectrums: (a) the police department, essential constituent of numerous problems and possibly the recurrent performer in every region of urban space; (b) violent urban crime, by all the insinuations of distribution and social disarray; (c) urban space, highlights on omission, idiosyncrasy and mismanagement. In this particular framework, a vital query arises which highlights: what has been the police department's functioning in controlling the violence activities occurring in the urban vicinities of Brazil? Only a few public agencies possess immeasurable involvement in the sundry practice of the cities, and recurrent dealings with the population, like the police. This particular study will investigate the link between these three facets of public safety and protection (Filho et al., 2005).

Since the last few years the focus of the Brazilian establishment concerning the protection of the civil society has rotated around three vital matters: (a) the police department, essential constituent of numerous problems and possibly the recurrent performer in every region of urban space; (b) violent urban criminality, as depicted through communal distribution and disarray; (c) urban space with respect to mismanagement, marginality and exclusion.

The prevalent situation of violent and criminal activities in metropolitan regions indicates the materialization of predatory crimes. The expansion in organized crime has been witnessed in numerous instances of urban violence. This particular fact is the backdrop for the augmenting rate of violent crimes in Brazil's chief metropolitan regions. The localities of Rio de Janeiro and the constituency of Sao Paulo entail 40% of the homicides present in Brazil, even though they are actually 18% of the aggregate population of the nation. An important facet of this observable fact is the urban practice where the crimes take place, which is immensely liable for this expansion. Approximately 20% of this form of crime takes place in below 2% of the geographical region of metropolitan vicinity. Consequently, the Brazilian metropolitan problem had to entail violence as a vital and pertinent hindrance to the metropolitan regions' development and planning.

Modern criminological literature and manuscripts have attributed urban ecology as an essential component in the distribution of a few forms of crimes. "Zip Law" is the commonly implemented methodology on the basis of which the crimes are segregated in the urban spaces. This methodology elucidates that a minor quantity of locality incorporates a hefty amount of crimes. For instance, in Belo Horizonte approximately 8 out of the 2,500 surveyed regions entailed above 10% of the violent crime of the total crimes of the city. So, what are these focal points about? What are the influential components that form the basis of these crime-based regions? (Beato et al., 2005)

Lastly, a general agreement is prevalent contemporarily which states that, regardless of the socioeconomic and environmental components, the police department should realize its obligations and liabilities in curtailing and eradicating crimes from the concerned regions. In recent times, the recurrent stipulation regarding police department's restructuring is being accentuated on intercession in constitutional regulations along with administration transformation. The chief basis of these dialogues possesses two arguments. The first highlights the subject of ideologies linked to the functioning of police department which has been excellently depicted in a compact statement: "there is no democracy devoid of a democratic police department." The second one has not been defined in definite terms, thus it will be explicated in this particular study: what has been the police department's functioning in controlling the violence activities occurring in the urban vicinities of Brazil? The police department is deemed as a tactical performer in an urban practice. Only a few public agencies possess immeasurable involvement in the sundry practice of the cities, and recurrent dealings with the population belonging to varied societal layers.

The police departments of democratic societies must incorporate a sense of obligation, accountability, systematization, and being effectual in performing their tasks. In accordance to this notion, the text has laid great emphasis on developing such strategies for a democratic society that are characterized as proactive in controlling and preventing crime (Goldstein, 1990). It has been detected that accurate and precise deployment by means of information management eradicates a considerable amount of crime activities (Sherman, 1989 and 1995; Beato, 2004a).

Our intention would be to define the interlinking attribute out of the components linked to these three spectrums. Crime, the urban space, and the interlinking out of the police department personnel would be the vital focus of the dialogues of this particular study. The exploration for propositions explicating the manner, with which components are linked to one another, along with their communication, appears vital in the public policies' prevalent practices regarding protection in urban centers of Brazil.

Crime and violence in urban spaces

According to classic conception, the formulation of cities incorporated the sense of protection and autonomy for its population which lacked in a feudal structure. With passage of time as the cities expanded, the concepts of universalistic legal system, economic rationality, citizenship's development, and latest kind of alliances among the population emerged (Weber, 1978; Durkheim, 1978). Nevertheless, in contemporary era the advancement of large urban centers has turned into being linked with fear and crime, and in numerous manners eradicating the sense of protection and confining the autonomy of the population (Davis, 1998).

Quite a few writers deem that cities should not be blamed for the prevalent crimes which have turned out to be their component, due to the fact that they are just an arrangement of public relations, and these relations are precisely the origin of violent crimes (Freitag, 2002). This notion ignores the numerous manners, on the basis of which these relations are instigated in the urban practice, along with the environmental manipulation linked to an array of violent activities. The pattern and designs of urban vicinity is a vital component in the inadequacy with which the societies and locations are defined (Shaw and McKay, 1942), of the composition of prospects for the occurrences of crimes (Cohen and Felson, 1979), and of proper and improper housing methodology as a persuasive component to numerous variety of violent crimes, and in democratic spectrum (Bottoms and Wiles, 1997).

Investigating the cumulative offence ratios in topographic regions has helped in clarifying the disparity in aggressive offence ratios amongst numerous conurbations, communities, nations and countries (Bailey, 1984; Blau and Blau, 1982; Land et al., 1990; Schuerman and Solomon, 1986). The outcome of the investigation has highlighted the varying factors like the ratio of financial inequity, the distribution of residents in any area, characteristics of the population, covering entire inhabitants, population concentration and the ratio of joblessness, are considerably related and connected with violent crimes specially killings.

Comparing with these well comprehended methodologies, it has now become more probable to recognize the essentials connected to metropolitan area. This can be with the help of spatial-study methods and computer's capability to examine bulk amount of data from its memory bank, a fact that has now made the chase of in-depth study in metropolitan areas achievable in a stage of elaborated features that was considered impossible earlier. Lately, joining hands with the Chicago School custom, steps have been taken to comprehend the background dynamics of metropolitan societies, in turn to understand offense and aggression. Therefore, societies and communal duration dynamics are now the focal point of investigation (Sampson, 2002; Abott, 1997). Rearing to this custom is indebted to the environmental focus of socio-communal assets along with the methodology of spatial isolation and offense focus.

The offense-root ecosystem model looks to take a firm grip on aggression's multi-featured character along with the recognition of aspects that inspire conducts and, consequently, raising the hazard of somebody consigning an offence or to suffer from aggression. Ecosystem examination of offense division in metropolitan hubs increases hypothetical and realistic concerns. In realistic terms, a query arises for the reasons behind why some communities and districts in a metropolis observe higher offense ratios. An offense detonation in main metropolitan hubs is a favorite reference for a number of people. It would be more realistic to talk of a collapse, as it takes place in precise societies, cases where sufferers and assailants are belonging and residing in a common locality. An age-old explanation of this experience is to acknowledge illegal transportation of banned drugs (Beato et al., 2001a and 2001b). Certainly, many types of connections in between rapacious offence and drugs have… [END OF PREVIEW]

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