Research Paper: Policy Issues in Education Settings

Pages: 5 (1478 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 12  ·  Level: Doctorate  ·  Topic: Teaching  ·  Buy This Paper


[. . .] Mupinga, D.M., Nora, R.T. & Yaw, D. (2006). The Learning Styles, Expectations, and Needs of Online Students. College Teaching, 54(1), 185-189.

This is an article which summarizes the challenges and limitations of web-based learning vs. The specific needs and expectations of students who utilize this type of learning. "Online learning environments lend themselves to a less hierarchical approach to instruction, meeting the learning needs of people who do not approach new information in a systematic or linear fashion. Online learning is also most suitable for independent learners. However, the majority of students who take Web classes do so not necessarily because the format suits their learning styles, but because they are attracted by the convenience, availability"

Navarro, P., and J. Shoemaker. 1999. Economics in cyberspace: A comparison study. Discussion paper. University of California: Irvine Graduate

School of Management, 33.

This paper examines the cost-efficacy of online learning vs. classroom learning. While online learning has been thought to be much less expensive in the past, the technological costs of such a system are significant and often under-reported cost factor that is necessary for such a system's success.

Neuhauser, C. (2002). Learning Style and Effectiveness of Online and Face-to-Face Instruction. American Journal of Distance Education, 16(2), 99-113.

This paper examines the retention of information and the depth of knowledge gained by students in online vs. classroom settings. Rather than concluding that one is 'better' than the other, the article focuses on flexibility vs. limitations of each style of learning.

Trinkle, D.A. 1999, 6 August. Distance education: A means to an end, no more, no less. The Chronicle of Higher Education, A60.

This paper argues for the importance of the educational institution to consider distance education as a supplemental aspect of the educational infrastructure rather than a replacement for traditional brick and mortar learning. The paper reasons that the supplemental aspects of distance learning are significant but should not be utilized to the exclusion of more traditional and proven learning methods.

Paper Outline:

1. Historical/social context of integration of hybrid and/or online learning into traditional brick and mortar 4-year colleges.

2. Overview of policy and legal considerations in institutions of higher learning, meant to acquaint the reader with the general domain of governance issues central to 4-year post-secondary institutions.

a. Identification of key policy areas, such as

i. intellectual property law,

ii. staff and student training, iii. integrity policy adaptation,

iv. financing,

v. quality assurance and vi. accreditation.

3. Educational trends in classroom and online learning at 4-year colleges and universities.

a. A review of the study literature pertaining to challenges and successes of each model within the brick and mortal setting.

4. Theories of classroom learning vs. online learning in the context of 4-year colleges and universities with respect to the policy and institutional challenges of key consideration

a. The influence of pedagogy upon policy (Arbaugh, Neuhauser)

b. Technological barriers and policy revisions which alter college's branding (eg. Smaller liberal arts colleges countering brand image with integration of e-learning

c. How each model impacts knowledge retention and skill development and practice

5. Arguments for and against the integration of online learning in traditional universities, given administrative challenges (particularly faculty resistance)

a. Market perception: how the integration of e-learning impacts policy vis a vis attracting/repelling desired demographics (Tierney)

b. Cost benefit analysis: The role of finance in policy directives surrounding e-learning integration (Navarro and Shoemaker 1999)

6. Evidence-based studies examining the successes and challenges of online learning vs. classroom educational settings.

7. Proposed solutions to easing the conflicts between proponents and opponents of the integration of online and classroom learning with policy directives:

a. Creating e-learning best practices vis a vis policy considerations. Policy set precedent. Given the concerns outlined in Mupinga, Joy, Diaz, et al., this section will highlight some policy initiatives from APLU project which advance e-learning in financially and pedagogically sound ways.

i. Firm intellectual property laws

ii. Mandatory introductory technological seminars for staff, faculty, and students iii. Financial deals with technology manufacturers

iv. Use of computer science students in e-learning infrastructure set up for cost-efficacy when applicable: potential problems with ethics.

8. Anticipated trends in e-learning in the future with consideration given to the application of dominant and novel educational theories.

a. The role of hybrid learning in traditional 4-year colleges in the 21st century, with reference to the statistics outlined in #1.

b. Demographic shifts with the next generation… [END OF PREVIEW]

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APA Format

Policy Issues in Education Settings.  (2011, April 24).  Retrieved August 25, 2019, from

MLA Format

"Policy Issues in Education Settings."  24 April 2011.  Web.  25 August 2019. <>.

Chicago Format

"Policy Issues in Education Settings."  April 24, 2011.  Accessed August 25, 2019.