Term Paper: Political Parties and the Electoral Process

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Political Parties and the Electoral Process

Conducting of elections is not the aim of political parties and do not have a role to play in conducting elections and are mainly contestants in the electoral process. There is a difference between parties and electoral administration bodies. It is essential to evade a clash of interest between the parties and the candidates and the regulators, the electoral management bodies; and thus it is very essential for the political parties to build a promise to and assurance in the simplicity and justice of the elections. Transparency, confidence, and efficiency are better performed when parties are there in all phases of the process than when the conduct of the elections is provided to election management bodies with less or virtually no contact at all with political parties. The political parties must have knowledge of all matters of the policies and procedures that disturb them directly or indirectly and must have participation in the decision process. (Political parties and the electoral process)

In the American political system, the political parties are the base. Strangely, the Constitution neither makes conditions for political parties nor for their activity as the means by which candidates for public office are recommended to the voters. The United States has a two-party system at the national level and it has continued throughout the nation's history, although some opponent national parties have emerged and vanished from the political scene. As of today, the Democratic Party, which began at the time of the nation's third president, Thomas Jefferson, and the Republican Party which was started in 1854, carries on to govern politics at the federal, state and local levels. (Fundamentals of American Government)

Ideological basis of the Republican Party:

person who evaded change was conservative and chooses to stick on to the tried and true. The Right political point-of-view is identical with being conservative. The Republican Party sticks to a more traditionalist stand. The present philosophies of the Republican Party are: relieve rule and keep government out of business; slash taxes; reduce or maintain social spending; enhance defense spending; minimize the government size and use more capitalistic policies. With regard to world peace to perform with world bodies and use conciliation, but take independent preventive action if essential to safe guard America. In case of crime to give utmost punishment and to safe guard the rights of the victim first and foremost. With regard to social security it calls for privatization; that is to permit people to control their own money and to permit stock investments. With regard to personal responsibility, people should be accountable and be held responsible for their own deeds; launch more religion in schools and allow government initiatives which are faith-based; to support Pro-life abortion; continue death penalty; prohibit same sex marriage; prohibit race-based favoritism; avoid doctor-assisted suicide; follow missile defense program; lesser or abolish smallest salary; With regard to health care, deregulate and set up free market development and with regard to misconduct lawsuits it calls for cap punitive & pain/suffering damage amounts. (Political ideology definitions)

Ideological basis of the Democratic Party:

The actual meaning of a liberal is a person, who supported change, new viewpoints, and new thoughts. To agree with the Left political point-of-view or to be a leftist is similar to being liberal. The Democratic Party sticks to a more liberal platform. The present philosophies of the Democratic Party are: to raise rule and worker security in business; to raise taxes; to raise social spending; to reduce or to preserve defense spending; to raise the government size and employ more socialistic policies; With regard to world peace, initially discuss and then take military action if approved by the U.N. And other world organizations; in case of crime, to safeguard the rights of the accused first and foremost; to raise the age of starting eligibility like 68 or 70 with regard to social security; to raise the salary limits subject to tax. With regard to personal responsibility, the government must defend the people from themselves. In matters of religion to preserve division of church and state and to avoid faith-based government plans. In social issues it stands for Pro-choice abortion, Further it forbids death penalty; permit same sex marriage; preserve race-based preferences; sanction doctor-assisted suicide; Cancel missile defense program and to raise minimum wage. With regard to health care, it calls to make it 100% Government controlled and with regard to misconduct lawsuits, it states not to not restrict disciplinary & pain/suffering damage amounts. (Political ideology definitions)

The role of Political Parties in the legislative process:

The authority to legislate is vested in the United States Congress, under the United States Constitution, in Article I, section 1. The U.S. House of Representatives and the U.S. Senate are the two bodies that make up the Congress. To pass a law, the accord of both is required. but, each chamber has an exclusive task, separate rules of procedure, and different customs. The bicameralism of the U.S. Congress is in consonance with the basic principle of government followed by the framers of our Constitution which means separating government into units, which must allocate power with one another and offers a natural check against oppression and misuse. Since the Congress does not act as a competent, homogenous unit, but as two different bodies frequently in variance with one another, adds to the problems in processing bills from the stage of introduction till the passage of the bill into law. As only a small portion of the bills presented are passed as law, the U.S. legislative process can perfectly be portrayed as legislative Darwinism, or survival of the fittest. The partiality developed into the U.S. legislative process makes it tricky to pass a law but easier to obstruct its course. The framers viewed the House as a chamber, which is representative of, accountable to and closely linked with the American people, in forming a bicameral legislature. (the Legislative Process)

Due to repeated elections, Representatives are seen as more prone to be responsive to alterations in popular sentiment. Representatives are well familiar with their constituencies and are likely to exactly reveal the ideas of the local citizenry and promote the requirements of their districts. The Senate is a lifelong body, only one-third of its membership proceeds for election at any one time. Each Senator contests for election only every six years. The House is intended to replicate the desires of the mass of the American people in the lawmaking process, and the Senate is intended to compel the consideration required to methodically observe the popular opinion. Deliberation necessitates the postponement of suggestions until sufficient arguments have taken place. Therefore the Senate's rules and traditions give benefits to the minority, like unrestricted debate, so that they can prevent the majority from acting too swiftly. But the rules and customs of the House support the majority to make sure that the people's view exists and that no minority may hinder them.

When legislation is thought to be critical to the agenda in naming a political party, the party leadership in Congress has often taken power over its progress. Both legislative plans circumvent the conventional committee system of initial consideration by a team of issue specialists, and have ended in more and more measures being taken on the floor among a wider membership with a broader range of motives. This has seriously made Law making difficult. A presidential rejection of an omnibus bill can end in grave political costs for both the Congress and the White House, like the blackout of the federal government in the face of breakdown to pass an omnibus appropriations bill. but, in other cases, signing such a measure into law can end in praise for both the President and the Congress for obliging to form complete results in spite of grave political and policy clash. Both movements make it more problematic to hold the Congress responsible for the legislation it forms. It becomes tricky to identify when and where the vital decisions confirming legislative language were done, when the traditional legislative process is evaded or short-circuited. Consecutively, this makes it trickier for the electorate to find exactly whom to recompense for policy achievement or whom to penalize for policy breakdown. (the Legislative Process)

The Electoral System:

The electoral process was worked out from the American Constitution, which was written in 1785. The framers of the Constitution discussed and discarded a direct popular vote. They supposed most Americans were inadequately educated and incapable of making sensible political decisions. The framers were worried that the public would vote for an enigmatic president instead of a competent and smart president. Hence, the Electoral College was formed. The number of a state's electoral votes is equivalent to the number of senators and representatives it has in Congress. An elector cannot be a Federal government employee or work for the government in any power. This rule was made to avoid senators and representatives from becoming electors and to preserve partition between the legislative and executive… [END OF PREVIEW]

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