Political Systems Term Paper

Pages: 5 (1437 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: ≈ 11  ·  File: .docx  ·  Level: College Senior  ·  Topic: Government

He dominates the government and may decree emergency measures if needed to ensure the interests of the state, provided he obtains consent by a popular referendum within sixty days of any such decree as stipulated in the constitution, however, a state of emergency that has been in effect since 1981 has set aside the requirement of popular approval for presidential decrees (Political pp).

The president enjoys many of the same privileges that are also enjoyed by a United States president, such as declaring war after gaining approval by the legislature, ratifying treaties, commuting penalties, and formulating general state policy and supervise its execution (Egypt pp). The Egyptian president is responsible for naming a prime minister, and akin to a U.S. president, names a council of ministers, or cabinet, who serve as the executive officers of the government's various departments, "including those dealing with foreign affairs, internal order, social affairs, justice, agriculture, commerce, industry, and education" (Egypt pp). Egyptian cabinet members aid in setting up government policy, however the key decisions are generally made by the president in "consultation with a few close advisers, most of whom are former cabinet ministers or high-ranking military officers" (Egypt pp).

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Egypt enjoys a bicameral legislature that is comprised of the People's Assembly and the Advisory Council (Egypt pp). Similar to the U.S. Senate, the People's Assembly consists of two elected representatives from each of Egypt's two hundred and twenty-two geographical constituencies, however, along with these, the president appoints ten members fir a total of four hundred and fifty-four member, all of whom serve five-year terms (Egypt pp). The Advisory Council consists of one hundred and seventy-six members who are popularly elected and eighty-eight who are presidential appointees, all serving six-year terms and serving only in a consultative role (Egypt pp).

Term Paper on Political Systems of the United Assignment

The judicial system in Egypt is based on European, primarily French, legal concepts and methods (Background pp). While the legal code is largely derived from the Napoleonic Code, marriage and personal status, family law, are primarily based on the religious law of the individual concerned, which for the majority of Egyptians is Islamic Law (Background pp).

Similar to the United States Supreme Court, the Supreme Constitutional Court is Egypt's highest court and serves to review the constitutionality of laws and regulations, resolve jurisdictional conflicts, settle disputes resulting from conflicts of lower courts, and interprets the government's laws and decrees (Egypt pp).

Below the Supreme Constitutional Court are courts of general jurisdiction and administrative courts (Egypt pp). The courts of general jurisdiction include the Court of Cassation, which has final jurisdiction in criminal and civil cases; the courts of appeal, which have jurisdiction over one or more of Egypt's administrative divisions, and hears appeals of decisions made by the lower courts, similar to the federal courts in U.S. states;

the tribunals of first instance are the courts that hear major criminal and civil cases; and the district tribunals have jurisdiction over minor criminal and civil cases (Egypt pp).

Again similar to the United States, Egypt has an attorney general who heads the Public Prosecution which serves at all levels of courts of general jurisdiction in all criminal and some civil cases (Egypt pp). The administrative courts have jurisdiction over cases concerning the government or its agencies and investigates administrative crimes committed by officials or civil servants (Egypt pp). The Council of State settles administrative disputes and deals with disciplinary cases within the judicial system, while the Supreme Judicial Council ensures the judiciary's independence from outside interference and aids in regulating other judicial bodies (Egypt pp).

Although there are obvious differences between the governments of Egypt and the United States, most notably Egypt's adherence to Islamic Law within its legal system, both countries have similar political structures based on each individual constitution.

Work Cited

The United States Government.


Portrait of the United States


Political System: Egypt.


Egypt. http://encarta.msn.com/text_761557408____36/Egypt.html

"Egypt: Political Situation." Encyclopedia of the Orient.


Background Note: Egypt. U.S. Department of State.

http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/5309.htm [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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