Politics of Monarchical Survival in Jordan and Morocco Term Paper

Pages: 10 (4007 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: ≈ 17  ·  File: .docx  ·  Level: College Senior  ·  Topic: History - Israel

¶ … politics of Monarchical Survival in Jordan and Morocco

Introduction broader perspective view into the forms of monarchy prevalent in the present day world in general defines the common peculiarities of the modern monarchies. Some of the monarchies are in operation since long and most are of recent origin, however, have been reformulated to a great extent to be adaptable to the needs of the nation state. The Islamic type of Monarchy is not particularly unique irrespective of the fact that the convention from which it hails clearly is mixing Arab tribal custom charismatic leadership and the Persian convention of quasi-divine kingship in its earlier manifestations. (the Myth of Monarchy in the Arab World)

In these circumstances the legitimating of the candidate or successor is significant, however, is often been quite ambiguous since the ruler need to obtain the consensus/acceptance of the 'ulama', and undertake to enjoin what is desirable and forbid that is blameworthy. Another characteristic of the nature of power in the traditional Islamic political thought is that there are no definite, universally adopted, doctrines of lawful resistance to injustice. (the Myth of Monarchy in the Arab World) We shall have a discussion of the monarchy which is prevalent in the Muslim nations of Jordan and Morocco.


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The Royal Family of Saudi Arabia is considered to be the largest monarchy in the Middle East with vast number of members. The Royalty of Jordan is considered to be the most beloved. Jordan, a small state, established in a permeable regional system and striving to survive the local and internal risk lends itself to an exploration that highlights the internal factors of foreign policy behavior and the connection between the regime consolidations, legitimatization and survival. (Salloukh, 1996) Monarchy is considered to be the most significant convention in Jordan. The Constitution envisages that all the members of the government and judiciary are appointed by the king and the representatives to the lower house of the legislature are elected by the people. (the Hashimite Kingdom of Jordan)

Term Paper on Politics of Monarchical Survival in Jordan and Morocco Assignment

The king is empowered to convene, open, adjourn, suspend or dissolve the legislature. He is he commander of the armed forces, chief promulgator of law, declares war, conclude peace and signs treaties. The king even though has the veto power to be challenged by the two-thirds majority in both the houses of the legislature, actually reigns by the rulings and is not liable to any one. The allocation of power is at his prudence. As per the convention and Islamic law the royal succession is by male descent from among the Haschimite dynasty. The ruling of the king includes the authority to bar the particular heirs from the royal succession by his verdict. In 1965 king Hussein barred he sons of his first wife. (the Hashimite Kingdom of Jordan)

When no appropriate successor is traced out one is to be chosen by the National Assembly. At the incident of the disability of the king by illness his authorities are exercised by a deputy, by a council of the throne appointed by the king or when the king is not capable of such appointments by the Council of Ministers. (the Hashimite Kingdom of Jordan) in 1946 the Jordan becomes a free country after being under the British reign since 1919. The Hashemite family has ruled Jordan since 1923. In 1946 the Jordan was formally renamed from the Emirate of Trans-Jordan to the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. King Hussein bin Talal was on the throne from 1952 till 1999, when he died to be succeeded by his eldest son Prince Abdullah. (Jordan. UK trade and Investment)

King Hussein had lived longer than his entire age band and was considered to be the largest serving head of the state in the Middle East. Hussein could succeed the challenges exerted by the Cold War rivalry that split East and West and are associated with nearly every major leader inclusive of the nine U.S. presidents during the four decades of his reigning. Tal, Lawrence. (July, 1993) it is worth probing the successes of the policy of Hussein that survived the Monarchy in Jordan in these years. The 'success' indicates to the capability of the regime to preserve authority and regulation over the political process and to neutralize the disruptive influences of trans-national conventions on the internal political setup. (Salloukh, 1996)

Hussein was secured by the conventionally loyal military and effective influences of public order. His contacts with the neighboring states were based on strong foundations. Peace prevailed in the borders of Israeli-held jurisdictions. Jordan was successful in repressing the attacks from its land that would have led to Israeli vengeance however barring a few isolated incursions into the Israeli-held territory by extremists of the Palestine Liberation Organization-PLO. Even though disputes prevailed between the Jordan and various Palestinian leaders on the issues of Arab-Israeli peace negotiations, the relations with Yasir Arafat wing of PLO was considered to be of less antagonistic in comparison to the Syrian-supported extremists like Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine-General command. The disruptive activities of the Palestinian extremists in Jordan were fully restrained by the security forces. The suspects of uprisings among the Palestinians under the Israeli occupation may creep into the Palestinian population of Jordan that had not been succeeded. (Jordan: Chapter 5)

With a view to consolidating and legitimizing his reign Hussein could effectively apply the conventional, religious and pan-Arab symbols. He professed and represented himself as the head of the family as much as the king of the country. His governance witnessed generously lavished material and political rewards to achieve the loyalty of the leaders of the conventional Jordanian society. His rule could successfully maintain the balance of power and positions among its tribal supporters in terms of the political loyalty and reach to the government or military posts. (Salloukh, 1996) Hussein could successfully put side by side the images of tradition and modernity in tactful methods. Since he ruled Jordan and not merely headed it, the effectiveness of Hussein in approaching the multiple Hashemite identities or 'royal personae' was considered to be a prime feature of his elaborate apparatus of power. (Shryock, 2000)

The success of the Hashemite regime has inculcated its ability to influence the other two main segments in the kingdom: the Transjordanian and the Palestinian. The Hashemite regime has effectively used social and economic policies in generating devotion to the regime and to integrate the different fractions of the society in Jordan. The techniques employed in his regime for attaining the political integration of the Palestinian refugees were extending them the Jordanian citizenship. The regime affords to weaken the Palestinian identity, suppress separatist Palestinian feelings and includes them into the institutions. Moreover, ever since the creation of Jordan, of course in exchange for loyalty or at least, agreement to Hashemite rule, the regime has dependent upon the foreign powers to extend its feasible strategies of existence. (Salloukh, 1996)

The Palestinian loyalty was achieved through the Palestinian assurance of economic felicity. The position of Jordan as an indirect beneficiary of the Arab oil economy has contributed towards the existence of the regime in terms of the growing neo-patrimonial political economy on the base of the Hashemite monarchy that led to the survival of the regime. All political parties were isolated in April 1957, making the political activity almost standstill. As a method to integrate its domestic position and guarantee its survival the regime effectively utilized in the words of Donald Horowitz 'structural techniques' mostly involving the reformation of electoral arrangements. (Salloukh, 1996)

The election results were maneuvered by giving soldiers the right to vote at the place of their deployment on the day of election and also by confining the right to vote only to those who paid a type of tax on asset. The regime succeeded in restraining the political activities effectively. The electoral arrangements were remolded to emphasize parochial allegiances, aggravating the relations between the different Palestinian groups. (Salloukh, 1996) the student activism was more meticulously regulated through the confinements on political organizations, demonstrations and meetings. (Internal Security)

At last the cutthroat competition among political parties in Jordan weakened their ability as an effective opposition, facilitating the effort of the regime at undermining their activities through the security services. The regime could succeed in neutralizing the Palestinian nationalist opposition figures through co-optation, usually by offering them non-sensitive ministerial or ambassadorial posts. The regime has resorted to the coercive measures in reinforcing its regulation over the domestic arena and secures its survival. The military support was a crucial part of the monarchy that the stability of the regime was completely secured unless the armed forces themselves could be destabilized. (Internal Security)

Irrespective of the fact that the episodes of the discontent over conditions of service had resulted from time to time the army dominated mostly by the Bedouins were considered to be the most stable institution in his reign. (Internal Security) the enforcement institutions have also played an important role in the building of the state and… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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