Popularity of Foreign Restaurant: Consumer Literature Review

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8m visitors to Thailand last year -- up 7.3 per cent on 1997 -- passed through Bangkok." (Cooke, 1999)

Additionally, according to Cooke (1999), "One of the pleasures of Bangkok is eating. While there are Thai restaurants on virtually every street corner, the capital also has a wealth of other cuisines on offer. A number of the more unusual establishments are tucked away near the leading hotels by the river. Prachak, on the New Road between The Oriental and Shandri-La, is a modest-looking restaurant specializing in Teochiu cuisine. The Teochiu, originally from around Swatow in southern China, are the dominant Chinese group in Thailand. The pig's trotters at the Prachak are said to be among the best in the country. For the brave, duck liver and pig's intestines are other specialties on offer." (Cooke, 1999)

According to Lander (2001), "The joy of street food in India, Thailand or Vietnam is that you pick your stall and the chef-proprietor cooks for you individually. At Masala Zone, these attractions are dispensed with. There is a menu. A great deal of what I ordered had been pre-cooked so it could be served quickly but had, as a result, lost its freshness and flavor; no serving plates are provided so it is impossible to taste anyone else's food without dipping into their bowls." (Lander, 2001)

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The underlying reason as to why people have been eating out more extensively is the relative increase in wealth of the underlying Thai population as well as the increase in visitation from wealthy tourists that decide to frequent the shopping and tourism destinations and engage the restaurants as well.

Literature Review on Popularity of Foreign Restaurant: Consumer Assignment

According to Guerrera, Kazmin, Mackay, Rahman, Ward (2003), "From China to South Korea and from Thailand to Indonesia, the western stereotype of the thrifty Asian is becoming outdated. "These days, who wants to save?" asks a young bank clerk, hurrying between jewelry shops during her lunch break at the MBK shopping mall in Bangkok, capital of Thailand, a country in the throes of a consumer boom. "Interest rates are lousy, credit is cheap and the economy is stable. Tales of elderly villagers purchasing luxury cars with buckets of cash hardly seem signs of a healthy consumer economy. But behind such out-of-control spending is a story of more sustainable consumption. Expenditure on luxuries has indeed grown: spending on eating out and hotel occupancy has doubled in the past 10 years across the Asia-Pacific region. But such spending is still dwarfed by the amount of money that Asian consumers put into sectors sucha s housing, education and basic needs." (Guerrera, Kazmin, Mackay, Rahman, Ward, (2003)

However, the recent economic downturn has curbed the rather booming economy in Thailand. According to Wiggins (2008), "More than half the 26,000 people surveyed in 52 countries between late September and early October by research group Nielsen believe their countries will be in recession in 12 months' time. But with consumer confidence falling in 43 of the countries surveyed by Nielsen compared with last year (the Philippines, Brazil and Thailand are among the few countries where confidence has risen), people are changing the way they live their lives." (Wiggins, 2008)

Principle of consumer behavior

Consumer behavior is the methodology that governs how a shopper is able to render personal decisions regarding consumption habits. Even today, much of what is understood about consumer behavior seemingly does remain a mystery. According to Siddiqui (2011), "With the growth in world's markets and adoption of sophisticated marketing techniques, the customers have more choices for where they get their products and services. This implies more challenges to marketers who now need more information about their customers their behaviors. In this competitive world conceptualization for customer satisfaction, customer loyalty and customer switching gained paramount importance." (Siddiqui, 2011)

Additionally, according to Siddiqui (2011), "Much has been written for customer loyalty, satisfaction and switching but the literature on relevant individual differences is very thin. Some of the previous research attempts to provide gender differences in consumer behavior like women are more involved in Christmas shopping as compared to men (Fisher & Arnold, 1990); the business cards of male designers were found to be standardized size and printed on white card significantly more than the female designers were round to be standardized size and printed on white card significantly more than the female designers (Moss & Colman, 1999); advertising, packaging and consumer choice has strong sex effects (Schmitt, Lecterc & Dube-Rioux, 1988); gender plays a pivotal role in online banking (Karjaluoto, Mattila and Pento, 2002); while evaluating the service encounters gender differs and consistently describes men as goal oriented and women as socially oriented, (Iacobucci, and Ostrom, 1993); but these researches and other researches attempted to provide the predictive power of demographic variables more specifically gender to predict consumer behavior, but unable to explain the individual variables more specifically gender to predict consumer behavior, but unable to explain the individual variables more specifically gender to predict consumer behavior, but unable to explain the individual differences in different consumer behavior imperatives namely customer satisfaction, switching, and loyalty differences in different consumer behavior imperatives namely customer satisfaction, switching, and loyalty." (Siddiqui, 2011)

Religion as a function of constraint as parameters which limit the scope of decision making to a discernable framework that is a philosophical and spiritual limit to what one may decide to purchase. According to Parameshwaran, Srivastava (2010), "Consumer behavior as a distinct area of study in marketing was born in mid sixties with the development of buyer behavioral models. Howards and Sheth (1999) and engel et al. (1993) for the first time acknowledged the various influences on consumer buying process. Religion that formed a part of the environment does influence the buying process. Hirschman (1982) points out that it is possible religion has been seeing as taboo topic among consumers. One of the earliest reports that found a relationship between buyer behavior and religion was a study on stove location (Thomson and Raine 1976). This study claims religions affiliation was useful basis for market segmentation in furniture sales. However, researcher did not find the religious classification to be significant." (Parameshwaran, Srivastava, 2010)

Walker (2003) sees consumer choice as a function of government involvement in its inherent mission to facilitate a more equal quality of life. According to Walker (2003), "The Government must abandon its guiding principle of consumer choice in favor of a state investment focused on services that can generate a better quality of life." (Walker, 2003)

According to Deutsch (2007), "From a rational choice perspective, consumers are expected to obtain energy-related services at least cost because cost minimization is necessary for utility maximization. When costs accrue at different points in time -- as in the case of operating cost of durable goods -- cost minimization conceptually involves intertemporal allocation. At a practical level, the typical approach to calculating least cost is the life-cycle cost approach (Sanstad and Howarth 1994, 812; McMahon, McNeil et al. 2005, 158)." (Deutsch, 2007)

Additionally, according to Deutsch (2007), "Representatives of a broader behavioral perspective acknowledge the limits to intendedly rational behavior and rather work within a framework of "bounded rationality" (Simon 1957, 198). Moverover, they may not approach human actions as being driven by a single type of optimizing behavior. Instead, they may stress the existence of different heuristics for problem solving -- simple rules for searching, stopping and decision-making (Simon 1955; Payne, Bettman et al. 1993; Gigerenzer and Selten 2001).

Consumer attitude towards foreign restaurant

According to Keillor (1996), "While no significant differences between the two groups exist, an examination of mean scores also shows that both groups agree that fast food is more of a convenience than a treat, that fast food restaurants are too impersonal, and that Hong Kong citizens prefer traditional food over foreign food." (Keillor, 1996)

According to Kawahara (1994), "In Hong Kong, which is an international city, many local retailers have expanded abroad, and many retailers operating in the territory come from Europe, North America, japan, and other East Asian countries. Japanese retailers, in particular, have been very successful in Hong Kong, and Japanese supermarkets are a very important element of food retailing in the territory." (Kawahara, 1994)

According to Fukue (2008), "In Hong Kong, Japanese food has for years been popular as a status symbol for the wealthy middle class, thanks to its reputation for high quality and safety. The export drive has made Hong Kong the No. 1 importer of Japanese food in the world, and some of Japan's farmers have started regarding the region as a gateway to tapping the much bigger market of mainland China in the future." (Fukue, 2008)

Additionally, according to Fukue (2008), "Joe Tang, a 33-year-old doctor in Hong Kong, said by e-mail that he always buys Japanese snacks, fresh vegetables and fruit. "I believe that Japanese vegetables and fruit are more healthy and organic. Japanese food can remain fresh as Hong Kong is not far from Japan,"… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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