Positive Effects of Exercise on Osteoarthritis Literature Review Chapter

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A 2009 study had similar results to the Edwards et al. study except that it measured to determine whether pain levels were lower after instituting exercise regimes for clients with osteoarthritis of the hip. The study discovered that "in knee OA patients, exercise as a single treatment is proven to be very effective towards counteracting pain and physical functionality" (Pans, van den Akker-Scheek, van derMeer, Bulstra, Stevens, 2009). So far, it seems as if the current literature has all been positive towards the effects of physical activity and exercise, at least in regards to how it lowers the level of obesity in patients and further lowers the incidence of pain and mobility. Of course, the Pans et al. study only used a single treatment exercise as a variable. The proposed study seeks to determine if an implemented exercise regime would accomplish more than just a single exercise treatment does. It does bode well, however, that the Pans study was effective in that "the results of this study will give a first impression of potential effectiveness of exercise and weight loss as a combination program for patients with OA of the hip" (Pans et al. 2009).

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There is a reason why this literature review has been ripe with so many references to obesity, at least as it regards to its effects on osteoarthritis, it's because the two go hand-in-hand. As the Edwards et al. study (discussed previously in this paper) determined "Obesity is one of the leading risk factors for the development of knee OA, and population studies show that the increased incidence of obesity in the U.S.A. has correlated with a similar rise in knee osteoarthritis" (Edwards, et al., 2012).

Literature Review Chapter on Positive Effects of Exercise on Osteoarthritis Assignment

Not all the studies found in current literature find a correlation between exercise and lower levels of pain however. One study determined that various combinations of diet and exercise as weight loss approaches to investigate the impact of weight reduction on knee pain and found that neither diet nor exercise alone significantly improved knee pain" (Messier, Loeser, Miller, 2004, p. 1502). The same study, however, found that when exercise and diet were implemented together "the two together did produce significant improvements" (Messier et al., p. 1502).

Another study determined that dietary habits and initiation of exercise regimes benefited those patients who were suffering from osteoarthritis in the knee (Magrans-Courtney, Wilborn, Rasmussen, 2011). The Margans-Courtney et al. study discovered that those patients suffering from osteoarthritis in the knee (or knees) who implemented exercise regimes were more likely to lower the incidences of pain and be more mobile. The Margans-Courtney study is the study that comes closest to what the proposed study is seeking to discover.

It is hoped that results from the proposed study either confirms or denies the benefits of using exercise as a component to address osteoarthritis in a variety of body areas.

The study wishes to determine that exercise will lower the pain of the patient, and at the same time increase the mobility of the patient in regards to overcoming the debilitating effects of osteoarthritis. It is also hoped that the results will influence future studies and practices in the field of osteoarthritis. If patients suffering from this disease are offered a method for lowering their incidence(s) of pain, then the study will have achieved its desired effects. According to many of the study discussed herein, and many of the studies not included, exercise seems to be one way to effect the crippling effects of osteoarthritis. It is hoped that this study confirms or denies current literature, but at the very least contributes to that literature in a positive manner.

Works Cited

Barile, J.; Reeve, B.; Smith, A.; Zack, M.; Mitchell, S.; Kobau, R.; Cella, D.; Luncheon, C.; & Thompson, W.; (2013) Monitoring population health for healthy people 2020: evaluation of the NIH PROMIS GlobalHealth, CDC Healthy Days, and satisfaction with life instruments, Quality of Life Research, Vol. 22, Issue 6, pp. 1201 -- 1211

Cushing, C.C. And Steele, R.G. (2014). Evidence-based obesity management for primary care. Public Interest Directorate. American Psychological Association. Retreived from http://www.apa.org/pi/families/resources/primary-care/obesity-management.aspx?item=1

Do, B., Hootman, D., Helmick, C.G., & Brady, T.J. (2011). Monitoring healthy people 2010 arthritis management objectives: education and clinician counseling for weight loss and exercise. American Family Medicine, 9(2), 136-141. doi: 10.1370/afm.1210 Retrieved http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21403140

Edwards, C., Rogers, A., Lynch, S., et al. (2012). The effects of bariatric surgery weight loss on knee pain in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee. Arthritis, 2012, [Clinical Study]. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/504189

Fontaine, K.R., Haaz, S., & Bartlett, S.J. (2007). Are overweight and obese adults with arthritis being advised to lose weight? Journal of Clinical Rheumatology, 13(1), 12-15. Retrieved http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17278942

Magrans-Courtney, T., Wilborn, C., Rasmussen, et al. (2011). Effects of diet type and supplementation of glucosamine, chondroitin, and MSM on body composition, functional status, and markers of health in women with knee osteoarthritis initiating a resistance-based exercise and weight loss program. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition.

McInnis, K., Franklin, B.A., & Rippe, J.M. (2003). Counseling for Physical Activity in Overweight and Obese Patients, American Family Physician, 67(6), 1249-1256. Retrieved http://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/0315/p1249.html

Messier, S.P.; Loeser, R.F.; & Miller, G.D.; (2004) Exercise and dietary weight loss in overweight and obese older adults with knee osteoarthritis: the arthritis, diet, and activity promotion trial, Arthritis and Rheumatism, Vol. 50, No. 5, pp. 1501 -- 1510, 2004

Paans, N., van den Akker-Scheek, I., van derMeer, K., Bulstra, S.K. And Stevens, M. (2009). The effects of exercise and weight loss in overweight patients with hip osteoarthritis: design of a prospective cohort study. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, 10, 24. doi:10.1186/1471-2474-10-24

Sartori-Cintra, A.R., Aikawa, P., and Cintra, D.E. (2014). Obesity vs. osteoarthritis: beyond the mechanical overload. Einstein (Sao Paulo), 0:0. [Epub ahead of print] Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25184806

Sowers, M.R. And Karvonen-Guiterrez, C.A. (2010, Sept.). The evolving role of obesity in knee osteoarthritis. Current Opinions Rheumatology, 22(5), 533 -- 537. doi: 10.1097/BOR.0b013e32833b4682. PMCID: PMC3291123. NIHMSID: NIHMS358648

Stillwell, S.B., Fineout-Overholt, E., Melnyk, B.M., & Williamson, K.M. (2010). Evidence-based practice, step-by-step: asking the clinical question: A key step in evidence-based… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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