Research Paper: Power and Negotiation in 12 Angry Men

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[. . .] As a consequence, he cannot change his position to accommodate jurors who are still undecided and who eventually side with Juror 8 because Juror 3 cannot lead them towards his camp.

On the other hand, Juror 3 proves leadership. Initially, he opposes the verdict, but he does so by offering a vision that other jurors can adhere to: what if he is not guilty and what if all the evidence is circumstantial. He does so by carefully selected arguments and by a leadership style that seems aloof on many occasions, particularly in the beginning. He does not push his conclusions on the others, but rather asks "what if" questions that eventually make people go to his camp. He provides an idealistic vision, the fact that they could save a man's life.

Looking at the three main differences that have been discussed so far, Juror 3 acts as if he has subordinates to whom he wants to impose his point-of-view. Juror 8, on the other hand, starts out all alone, which means he needs to build his support by influencing the other jurors and he does so as an excellent leader by creating circles of influence. He creates value as a team, as soon as he starts receiving people on his side.

Juror 3 acts as a true manager by counting value rather than creating it. He starts the movie with all jurors, except Juror 8, on his side. As a consequence, he is not set on creating value, since he expects the last of the jurors to turn to his side eventually. Through his management style, he succeeds in actually losing the value of some of his jurors, who turn over to the other team, because of his disabling their strengths.

Tuckman presents the four stages of group development. The first stage is the beginning of group forming. All the initial operations take place in this phase. A leader is identified, a task is defined and an objective is agreed upon, one that the team will follow through the other development stages.

In the movie, the forming stage occurs, obviously, in the first scenes of the movie. The trial ends and the jury is isolated in order to reach a verdict. The audience identifies the group, as well as the sole individual that has a different opinion from the group. They have defined their task (reaching a decision, because their task is incomplete if they do not have a unanimous verdict), have an assumed manager (Juror 3) and an opposing individual in the group.

The storming phase implies conflicts. Expertise fights management to breakaway from the mainstream ideas and impose a new current of thought. In the case of the movie, Juror 8, already established as the sole opponent of the mainstream ideas, brings expertise and arguments to gain new people to his cause. He aims to prove that the arguments that the prosecution brought are all circumstantial and does a good job of this, because, by the end of the process, several of the other jurors are on his side.

Norming shows a period of normalcy in the process, one during which the team is somewhat settled along some ideas, some lines of agreement. In the movie, this is probably the moment when the sides are 6 to 6 jurors. In the movie, this feels like a moment of rest among the two teams, one where each side seems entrenched in their own beliefs and opinions. It is also interesting that, in the norming phase, the jurors also find proper ways to communicate among each other. Despite conflicts, they have a status quo that they are able to maintain, even if there are occasional outbursts, particularly from Juror 3.

Performing shows an increased efficiency and an increased capacity to perform well together and to work towards reaching the common objectives. In this stage, the jurors start balancing towards obtaining a not guilty version and the team that believes in that version starts performing better and better, in a joint manner, towards convincing the others of this fact. They start believing in the qualities of the leader (Juror 8) and act accordingly, including by taking on some of his micromanagement tasks.


1. 5 Sources of Power in Organizations. On the Internet at Last retrieved on March 7, 2014

2. Nayar, Vineet, (2013), Three Differences Between Managers and Leaders. Harvard Business Review. On the Internet… [END OF PREVIEW]

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APA Format

Power and Negotiation in 12 Angry Men.  (2014, March 7).  Retrieved May 21, 2019, from

MLA Format

"Power and Negotiation in 12 Angry Men."  7 March 2014.  Web.  21 May 2019. <>.

Chicago Format

"Power and Negotiation in 12 Angry Men."  March 7, 2014.  Accessed May 21, 2019.