Power the Term Power Generally Originates Essay

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¶ … Power

The term power generally originates from authority or position through which people can be influenced both positively and negatively. The first type of power practiced in an organization is coercive power. This type of power basically involves use of threat in order to make people do what is desired. Essentially, people would submit to the demands of their leader for the fear of losing something. Reward power makes use of perks, incentives or rewards; such as training opportunities, new projects or giving of monetary benefits in order to influence people. Referent power is attained from the interpersonal relationships that one is able to create with other people in an organization. Also, the referent power is exercised by film stars or celebrities such they have a huge following. They practice lasting influence on many people for a lot of decisions; for instance, which car to purchase. Legitimate power, also referred to as positional power is obtained from the position a person holds in the hierarchy of an organization. The duration of legitimate power is short as the person employing it can only make use of it till they have a hold of that position. Also, the scope of the power is small for the reason that it is firmly defined by the held position. Expert power is another type of power exercised in organizations through which one is given the talent to administer to another information, expertise or knowledge. For instance, doctors utilize expert power to convince people and have them trust them.

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Essay on Power the Term Power Generally Originates From Assignment

The mechanistic structure of an organization, also referred to as bureaucratic structure is based upon a formal and centralized network. This kind of structure is appropriate for companies operating in a stable environment. The mechanistic organizations guarantee dependable role performance. In mechanistic structure reward power is practiced. Also, since the hierarchical differentiation as well as social stratification in such structure separates leaders from followers expert power is also practiced in a mechanistic structure (Kipnis). On the other hand organic structures are made use of in organizations which are facing dynamic or unstable environments. This type of structure in an organization develops, enforces and maintains trust, respect for expertise, teamwork as well as mutual support amongst the members. As organizational conditions for such an organizational structure stress on open communication as rational practice, thus the usage of coercive power is practiced.

Which tactics should an organization follow

The influence style of a superior is affected by the competence level of a subordinate. In certain situations where the level of competence is high, the leader might make use of soft tactics including, consultation or inspirational appeal. Contrarily, in case the competence level of subordinate is low the superior will utilize hard tactics such as pressure.

Five conflict handling styles

The term conflict management is described as what people should do when experiencing a conflict, and what they actually do (Van de Vliert). There are several ways through which one can handle a conflict. Forcing is a tactic commonly used in which one's will is imposed on another. Methods of forcing include persuasive arguments, threats, bluffs, and positional commitments. Problem solving focuses on reaching an agreement through which ones and other's aspirations are satisfied as much as possible. During the process of problem solving, information is exchanged regarding the preferences and priorities. Also, tradeoffs are made amid the most important and unimportant issues. Yielding, focuses on accepting as well as incorporating will of others. This tactic involves offering help, unilateral concessions and unconditional promises. When compromising, each person has to give somewhat in order to come up with the solution that is conventional for everyone. In avoiding, the importance of the issues is reduced. In addition, one makes the attempts to avoid thinking about the particular issue. When you are more interested in getting the conflict resolved quickly, you use compromising as a tactic (Pruitt and Rubin).

The Blake Model of Leadership goes on to evaluate the concern for people vs. The concern for production. This leadership model evaluates a leadership style either on the amount of concern the leader has for his team members or how focused he is in attaining the goals. It is should be noted that conflicts arise in a company when there is an imbalance between the two. When we look at the tactics of forcing, the leader gives more regard to the concern or production. No employee would be alright with being forced and demanded with orders. On the other hand, problem solving, yielding and compromising are tactics that also show concern for the people. If an amalgamation of all these tactics is seen, then it is observed that they fall in the middle of the road area on the Blake Model of Leadership. While keeping the focus on production, the leader also looks into the problems of his employees and ensures a balance in the company.

Evolution of Leadership Theory

It appears that leadership theories have changed over time owing to the changes in the corporate environment and the market. The historical evolution of study of leadership and leaders comes from Galtons Great Man theory. At first, battlefield heroes, wealthy individuals and royalty had the talents and abilities that set them apart from the population. These tactics ultimately gave them power and the ability to be leaders. Great Man Theory eventually gave bird tot the trait theory during the 1920s. This theory merely tried to pick out the specific habits and traits that rendered a good leader different from other individuals. The major point in this theory therefore was that leaders should have a set of characteristic that made them leaders. This theory again had major criteria that were fixed and that people were born with. As researchers began to study this topic in more detail, they came across theories regarding the situational and ultimately the transformational leader. Today, the theories merely revolved around how a leader is able to act in difficult situations and how he deals inside the company. The focus is now replaced with relationship behavior, efforts to reduce stress and dealing with the pressures of the company. These personal characteristics and ability to act in different situations thus became the basis for leadership theories today.

Difference between leadership and management

It should be noted that leadership and management are two things that also go side by side. Even though they are not the same, they are definitely complementing each other. The manager merely administers where as the leader goes on to invent new ideas. As it can be concluded, both tasks are equally important. The manger thereof should plan the things that have to be done, organize the members and eventually coordinate with the performance. A leader should be a good source of motivation and inspiration for his team members.

Contingency Theory

The contingency model as put forward by Fiedler (1964) states that the leadership effectiveness is the ultimate result of the demand of the situation and the qualities of the leader. As stated earlier, the qualities of the leader ultimately became the main focus of leadership theories. It is the way these two requirements intermingle with each other that basically goes on to determine how effective a leader would really be. This model merely states that the effective leadership depends on the situation. Again, it brings in the notion that leaders should be able to adapt to different situations and know what steps to take. The Decision Making Model of Vroom and Yetton (1973) stated that it is quite crucial for a leader to determine how much participation the employees should have in the company. The major emphasis was laid on how much they are willing to put in the decision making process. This model related to the contingency theory basically concludes… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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