Research Paper: PPD Literature Review

Pages: 8 (2280 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 8  ·  Level: Master's  ·  Topic: Psychology  ·  Buy This Paper


[. . .] Women with PPD may also have recurrent thoughts of death or suicidal ideation or recurrent thoughts about harming the baby." (p.15) Additionally reported is that the effects of PPD that are most "devastating…include long-term cognitive and behavior problems in children, spousal depression, widespread family dysfunction, and chronic and increasingly severe maternal depression." (Posmontier and Waite, 2011, p.16) It is reported as well that there is no "definitive etiology…found to be causal…" as PPD is believed to result "from a combination of macro-world factors, such as poor marital and social support and unrealistic perceived societal expectations of motherhood within the specific culture, and micro-world factors, such as poor self-esteem, shame, and negative self-talk." (Posmontier and Waite, 2011, p.16)Existing theoretical frameworks for the study of PPD includes those as follows:

(1) Culture-Bound PPD;

(2) Attachment Theory;

(3) Earthquake Model of Postpartum Depression;

(4) Teetering on the Edge; and (5) Theory of Maternal Role Collapse. (Posmontier and Waite, 2011, p. 16-7)

The theory of social energy exchange for postpartum depression is based on "Social energy exchange and social solidarity" in Collin's (2004) Interaction Ritual Chains, Wiley's (1994) The Semiotic Self, and Scheff's (1997) Social Shame and the Social Bond." (Posmontier and Waite, 2011, p. 17) Social Energy Exchange is defined as "…the dynamic free flow of feelings and actions of empathy, caring, and support that is exchanged between a woman and her social and cultural network, health care provider, community, or occupational system (macro world) or with herself (micro world). " (Posmontier and Waite, 2011, p. 17) Intrasocial energy or social energy exchange within the woman is demonstrated through "empathy, caring, and supportive self-talk and functions as social capital, boosts the self-esteem of the woman and makes her more attractive to the macro world. The woman is then enabled to "exchange her social capital to attract needed services and support from her macro world." (Posmontier and Waite, 2011, p. 17) The more social capital that the woman generates through social energy exchange the more likely that the macro world will deem her attractive and make the provision of social energy in the form of support. The free flow of inter -- and intrasocial energy exchange results in a feeling of social solidarity. The inter-or internal social solidarity is that within the woman and the intrasocial solidarity is external or outside of the woman. (Posmontier and Waite, 2011, paraphrased)

The work of Lev-Wiesel, Tekoah, and Hallak (2009) entitled "Childhood Sexual Abuse as a Predictor of Birth-Related Posttraumatic Stress and Postpartum Posttraumatic Stress" states that while some women experience childbirth joyfully for others "…it can be a traumatic experience, often associated with intense physical pain and feelings of being out of control. Most women recover quickly postpartum, yet others appear to have more difficulties. Various examples in the childbirth literature suggest that childbirth can have a long lasting psychological impact such as posttraumatic stress disorder defined as the symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder fall into three clusters: re-experiencing the event through intrusive thoughts, nightmares or flashbacks; avoidance of factors associated with the event and emotional numbing; and increased arousal as hypervigilance and irritability." (p.877)

In a separate study reported in the work of Lang, Rodgers, and Lebeck (2006) entitled "Associations Between Maternal Childhood Maltreatment and Psychopathology and Aggression during Pregnancy and Postpartum" it is reported that the study conducted indicates that "childhood maltreatment is associated with poorer maternal mental health during pregnancy and 1 year postpartum and points to the need to improve targeting and treatment of psychopathology during this time." (2005, p.17)

The work of Carroll, et al. ( ) reports findings from a study that are stated to "…demonstrate that health care providers who used the ALPHA form detected almost twice as many antenatal psychosocial concerns as providers who did not use the form. The ALPHA form appears to have functioned effectively in practice situations with different providers. The results also show that pregnant women valued psychosocial enquiry and that providers found it useful." (p.256)


Boyd, RC, Le, HN, and Somberg, R. (2005) Review of Screening Instruments for Postpartum Depression. Arch Women's Ment Health 2005 8: 141-153.

Carroll, JC (2005) Effectiveness of the Antenatal Psychosocial Health Assessment (ALPHA) form in detecting psychosocial concerns: a randomized controlled trial CMAJ • AUG. 2, 2005; 173 (3).

Jasinski, J Mothers with depressive symptoms (2011) Pregnancy and Domestic Violence: A Review of the Literature. Univ of Southern California. 19 Mar 2011.

Lang, AJ, Rodgers, CS and Lebeck, MM (2006) Associations between maternal childhood maltreatment… [END OF PREVIEW]

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APA Format

PPD Literature Review.  (2011, April 5).  Retrieved June 19, 2019, from

MLA Format

"PPD Literature Review."  5 April 2011.  Web.  19 June 2019. <>.

Chicago Format

"PPD Literature Review."  April 5, 2011.  Accessed June 19, 2019.