Term Paper: Presence of Multiple Views and Voices

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¶ … presence of multiple views and voices that includes mainly lay voices and to examine its interactions. (Eysenbach; Till, 2001) From a variety of resources, Marie Hoepfl tries to explain the important characteristic of qualitative research as that: Qualitative research uses the natural setting as the source of data. The researcher tries to study, explain and infer settings as they are, upholding an caring impartiality; the researcher behaves as the human instrument of data collection; Qualitative researchers mainly use inductive data analysis; Qualitative research reports are narrative, containing dramatic language and the existence of voice in the text; Qualitative research has an deducing character, intended at finding out the significance events have for the individuals who undergo them, and the inferences of those meanings by the researcher; Qualitative researchers give thought to the distinctive as well as the all-encompassing, in quest of the exclusivity of each case; Qualitative research has an developing as against programmed design, and researchers concentrate on this budding process as well as the results or product of the research; Qualitative research is assessed using unique norm for dependability. (Hoepfl, 1997)

At present there are symptoms that qualitative research is benefiting from something of an enhancement in its fortunes. Qualitative research is more and more being used in several European countries and in North America in applied research and evaluation research, inviting sponsors such as government departments. Also in U.S. social science, which is for a long time a fortress of quantitative research, qualitative methods seem to have acquired increased authenticity. In the current years many new journals in the field have been started and events like the International Sociological Association Research Methodology conferences contain a rising number of sections concerning the features of qualitative method. The fame of focus group methodology has done a great deal to boost the utilization and authenticity of qualitative research, mainly in the applied qualitative research. There are two progresses which are related with this trend and which supplies to it. The formation of specialist computer software to assist the analysis of qualitative data that is the Computer assisted qualitative data analysis software is the first progress while the other is the formation of an infrastructure for the archiving of qualitative materials, with an idea to advance the secondary analysis of qualitative data. (Fielding, 2000)

The utilization of the computer technology has come out to be a significant tool in the sphere of research. (Taft, 1993) a developing body of literature has revived the improvements of computer programmers to assist qualitative analysis. Lee and Fielding propose that the researchers are influenced by the early writings on the advantages and risks of using computers. (Phil, 1999) the utilization of the tape recorders in the sphere of field analyses for documentation interview sessions is considered as the initial use technical know how in respect of qualitative research. In one way it was considered by the researchers as the most convenient means of maintaining record of incidents and conversations however was having two unpredictable results. Firstly, it made the services of the secretaries or audio typists, those conventionally were engaged to take down the record of sessions for the hand written notes of the researchers, made unnecessary and transferred the responsibility to tape recorders. Such isolation had a tremendous influence on the closeness of data the researchers could manage and also on the association with the data and the research oriented ideology of the researcher. (Gibbs; Friese; Mangabeira, 2002)

Possession of recorded material and a dictation implies new methods of ideology for devising the data and the method to analyze with utilization of the data. Secondly, it made possible for him to study from different angles that are feasible only by maintaining the accurate records of speech. This made feasible to concentrate on the small isolated part and tiny content and attribute of the speech. This also unlocked new avenues for large scales analyses and also entailed scope for utilization of compound researchers and analysts. The influence of technology both on the type of the data to be collected and recorded and also on the type of analysis that makes it feasible is prevalence till date. With the advent of twenty-first century the utilization of new technology has also makes it imperative to concentrate on the issues as to what is to be analyzed and the way it is to be analyzed and also to find out the differentiations on the awareness and understanding of the knowledge with utilization of the emerging technology as a comparison with that of by utilization of the conventional methods. Most the researchers could visualize in most of the cases the utilization of new technology ordinarily influences both. (Gibbs; Friese; Mangabeira, 2002)

With the persistent reduction in the costs of the digital video cameras and the technology growing to be more comprehensible to the users the video is emerging to be a more popular data collection method. (Spiers, 2004) Qualitative researches are usually language intense. Language offers a source for comprehending cultures and the opinions of the contributors. By persistently asking inhabitants for the names of things, ethnographers, for instance, arrive at the cognitive system of the spotted culture. For several years, researchers have been able to acquire natural language or speech through the use of both video and audiotapes. Many spoken and nonverbal details are conserved. (Campbell, 1997) the video technology exhibits unique properties that permit the researchers to obtain and represent the multifarious occurrences from varied dimensions. The International Institute for the Qualitative Methodology has been laying emphasis for several years on observational research with the use of video in the data collection activities. (Spiers, 2004)

To illustrate the fact consideration is made on the work of Jan Morse on the caring activities in emergency rooms and her current micro analytic work on the analysis of facial expressions that relates the behavioral manifestations of the transitions between the enduring and suffering with the narrative. There exists an ever growing organ of knowledge about the concerns of representation, perspective, interpretation and rigidity of the video-based qualitative research. The deficiency is however, visualized in respect of the availability of the real information on the guidelines and hazards in dealing with the study of the video data. Conventionally, many tools have been attempted for revision of data with a view to analyzing and diffuse. What we have acquired is the simplest method that is regarded as the best. The analysis is made in a word processing program like MS Word once the video is imported to the computer of the researcher. After close observation of the research data again and again a record of contents is maintained and narrative notes are being prepared in order to have an initial idea about the relevant and concerned fragments of the video. However, general to all qualitative analysis is the attitude to regard one significant varies with the development of thinking. (Spiers, 2004)

Of late, fast data entry e.g., recording each case of a spotted speech event and the conditions under which it took place at the site has been improved by the use of laptop computers, a tool not accessible just a few years ago. For more correct records of dates, places, times and people consulted, computer forms can be produced. Computers also enable the accounts of progress in the fieldwork and point out voids in the data collection. Field notes and journal entries may be noted down more methodically and likeness becomes an essential part of data collection, as interviews are written out into text files. Actually, during data collection initial analysis really starts. Researchers are encouraged to make decisions about thinning the study, developing analytic questions, amending data collection procedures, and playing with descriptions, similarities, and ideas applicable to the study. All of these tasks are made more efficient through the use of technology and aid in the thoughtful process so vital to concluding analysis. (Campbell, 1997)

According to Willis and Jost the utilization of the Computers in the sphere of qualitative research is grouped under two heads. One is unanimously accepted by the researchers irrespective of their theoretical or methodological approach. The other one is constructed out of the various applications of the computers which is disputed and not based on the attitude of the researcher about the direction of the qualitative research. According to them four unambiguous methods of using computer in the sphere of qualitative research is visualized such as: a base for provision of data; a base for provision of information; an instrument of collection of data; and a mode of communication of the results. Illustrations and recommendations have been put forth for each of them. There is a controversial debate on the use of computer technology in data analysis. They attempt to split the qualitative researchers in two groups: first group emphasizing on the 'holistic' data analysis and the second one laying emphasis on the atomistic data analysis. The first one is antagonistic towards most of the prevailing data analysis software as such programs… [END OF PREVIEW]

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