Term Paper: Proactive Policing

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[. . .] Moreover, opportunity reduction programs that indicate the success and is concerned with extra police patrols in high-crime "hot spots" along with the monitoring carried out by specialized police units of high-risk repeat offenders has been made (Cordner, 1997).

Additionally, the "what's promising" list includes a combination of proactive approaches for example:

Community-based mentoring to be done by the Big Brothers/Big Sisters of America.

Greater respect is shown by the police to arrested suspects (this approach has been found to be effective in the reduction of repeat offending)

Effective way for gang monitoring by community workers and probation officers as well as police should be implemented and Field interrogations of suspicious persons in "Polite" manner (Cordner, 1997).

Other such programs include:

Community-based after-school recreation programs

For more individual attention "schools within schools" group students into smaller units Job Corps residential training programs implementation for at-risk youth

To reduce unemployment, project zones projection;

Layout redesigning of retail stores in order to prevent shoplifting;

Control violence and driving under the influence of alcohol, implementation of management of bar and tavern staffs;

Make use of metal detectors in public buildings

Barricades, street closures and rerouting in order to lessen community violence and burglary

An effective and unique problem-solving analysis to the crime state at every location (this is a requirement of any COP attempt)

Proactive arrests for carrying concealed weapons

Special drug courts to give more attention to individual offenders;

Intensive supervision and aftercare of adolescent delinquents and Penalty charges for criminal acts (besides the imprisonment in serious cases) (Cordner, 1997).

Even though, it appeared that that these proactive programs will not work. For instance, it was revealed that community mobilization like Neighborhood Crime Watch worked well in middle-income communities but at the same time it was not successful in high-crime poverty locations as neighbors mostly did not know and/or trust each other, and were most likely to commit crimes against each other (Hochanadel, 1998).

At the same time, juveniles' arrests for minor crimes and arrests of unemployed domestic assault suspects were not found effective, since juveniles usually committed new crimes after communicating with the system and unemployed abusers. Additionally, prevention efforts such as correctional boot camps and "Scared Straight" programs in which minor juvenile and young offenders visit adult prisons were also found unworkable (Nalla, 1999).

While, rehabilitation of short-term job training along with the treatment programs designed for juveniles and adults demonstrated to be insufficient, whereas longer-term programs, turned to be more-intensive efforts and promising (Nalla, 1999).

Another category that was not much successful is Drug Abuse Resistance Education (DARE). This program was carried out in nearly every school in the country. Its "original curriculum" was taught by uniformed police officers to fifth- and sixth-graders where more then 17 lessons turned out to be unsuccessful (Nalla, 1999).

However, one of the many programs that were successful was innovative schools within schools and thinking skills training. This encouraged group and team learning to be hopeful in reducing drug abuse. While, according to more recent studies, the revised DARE curriculum that later included the follow-up contact with students in grades seven/eight/nine and/or 10 also proved to be promising (Nalla, 1999).

These academic researchers were cautious to prevent any far-reaching conclusions from this first evaluation of over five hundred crime prevention programs, but it seemed that early proactive prevention indicated the most potential, together with thorough training and treatment for those who were previously in problem (Nalla, 1999).

Further than this, community/proactive -initiated programs charged better than government-created efforts, and partnerships in order to give required services by means of existing, recognized programs have been more effectual and well-organized than starting new governmental programs.

High-Tech, High-Touch Crime Prevention

The proactive programs and technology that have been designed to eliminate crime considerably have already emerged, but it still requires the citizen acceptance of a proactive philosophy for dealing with crime and justice as well as for citizens to take control of the process from beginning to end. Even though the framework is available; & is implemented but it still requires the necessary connections to create a harmonized system, which is lacking (Reisig, 1998).

This however, can be further achieved by increasing proactive/community control with police in community-oriented policing (COP) efforts everywhere in neighborhoods. At the same time, priority should be given to the growing restorative justice approach, instead of traditional retributive justice in adversarial courts and disciplinary institutions (Reisig, 1998).

Community-Oriented Policing

In 1829, Sir Robert Peel started the basic philosophy and principles for the new profession in setting up the first organization in London. This community-oriented policing movement is basically a return to roots, and as the father of public policing. The police duty is to prevent crime, peel declared, while adding the best sign of success as the absence of crime (Thruman, 1997).

Moreover, proactive/community policing needs partnerships, including all public and private agencies under the jurisdiction; in addition to the active participation by community residents (Thruman, 1997). Citizens lead the effort to evaluate neighborhood requirements and accordingly set priorities in order to deal with crime-breeding situations, which is only under ideal conditions. Thus, COP is a philosophy, instead of specific tactics, since every community determines its program in order to make its own plan and programs (Thruman, 1997).

For successful COP efforts, crime control (war model) methods such as imposed authority, demand for fulfillment, reaction to crime and threats have been replaced by prevention (peace model) methods like establishing confidence, sharing authority, working together with the community, and finally & most importantly executing proactive crime-prevention that is centered on seeking out and improving problems that lead or is the reason to crime (Thruman, 1997).

Restorative justice.

In addition to the best proactive efforts of a community and the police to prevent crime in all situations is restorative justice. This is applied when crime takes place restorative justice offers a proactive option. Now again, this new method is in fact a "come back to the future" idea, since non-adversarial, as consensus-based tribunals and punishment were used in small communities and tribes around the globe before the "civilization" brought planned authorized systems (Thruman, 2001).

The emphasis of this approach has been under tribal justice and generally was on protection of the community, equity and problem solving, instead of imposed punishment after adversarial procedures. In Washington, D.C, a three-day restorative justice conference took place, in which a Native American judge stated (Thruman, 2001):

You people [European settlers] came to this country and made us establish your courts and your justice system, and now you're telling us to go back to what we did before you arrived, while favoring the "return to justice. (Thruman, 2001)"

The rational principles that bring about restorative justice hold that crime is offense against human relations as well as against individuals and the community, which does not include governments. Hence, primary concern is to support victims, while second main concern is to reinstate community to the degree possible. In order to do this, firstly the offender must accept his/her responsibilities to the victim and the community, at the same time the community has responsibility to recover and settle with the offender as the debt is paid (Thruman, 2001). Lastly, partnerships among all stakeholders, i.e., victim, offender and the community must be formed and sustained (Thruman, 2001).

The restorative justice process, when developed completely, starts with a purpose of the aspects of the incident taken place and, in case if there is harm made and it is attributable to particular person(s), to hold the violator(s) responsible in making compensation to the victim(s) as well as to the community. In addition, the offender must be supported in developing the capability, aptitude, and desire to live legally in the community. Conclusively, all parties should be reconciled (Thruman, 2001).

One major support has turned up from the American Bar Association, which has given research, as well as, backed for substitute dispute resolution programs following a lecture to its associates in 1984 by Supreme Court Justice Warren Burger, who informed the attorneys:

Courts] ought to be healers of conflict... For some disputes, trials will be the only means, but for many claims, trial by adversarial contest must go the way of the ancient trial by blood and battle. Our system is too costly, too painful and too destructive for a truly civilized people.... (Thruman, 2001)"

It appears, on the other hand, that the upbeat movement is powerful enough to endure confrontation and even disruption. Even those most divergent are regularly changed after considering the achievements-- a lesser amount of offense, reduced terror, invigorated social structure -- in societies assuming this approach (Thruman, 2001).

A lot of traditional police customs, for instance, speedy reaction to pleas,… [END OF PREVIEW]

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Proactive Policing.  (2004, March 14).  Retrieved July 24, 2019, from https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/proactive-policing-generally/1955864

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