Essay: Process of Economic Development

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Economic Development

Role of Geography and institutions in economic development

Over the years, there have been debates on the role that geography of a nation or continent plays in contribution to the economy of a region. On one hand, there are scholars who argue that the geography of a location is central and plays a big role in determining the economy of a region and yet on the other hand, there are those scholars who argue that the economy of a region is mostly determined by the institutions that are within the population and how they are managed by the people in the management positions. Each side of the arguments have been quick to point out a few facts that are in support of their arguments and even drawn examples from the community and used them to justify their side of the argument. Each side has also given practical calculations of the value added to the society by the geography and the institutions to the economies of a region, and with some success, they have managed to sail through with their arguments. This paper will look at the arguments and examples that are given by both sides and later take a stand on the approach that best fits the situation.

First, we will begin with the side that argues that it is the geography of a place that contributes significantly to the economy of a region and not the institutions that are in the society. There are some key geographical and ecological features like the disease ecology, the climate zones as well as the distance from the coast lines that contribute significantly to the economy of a region. The effects of these geographical features affect the economy of a region through two major channels which are the direct channel like the geographical effect on production and agriculture, influence on trade and investment ad its effect on population growth. There is also the indirect channel which is its effect that comes through the choice of economic and political institutions. Both of these means have been seen to be significantly viable in influencing the economy of a region since a disadvantageous geographical environment may make room for the development of institutions that are less productive and weak hence bringing down the economy of the region.

In this particular case, the issue of malaria a geographical feature has been used to illustrate how the geographical features of a region can influence the economy of the region and directly have effects on the per capita income of the region. It is open that the areas that have high cases of malaria have a lower per capita income than areas that do not have high prevalence of malaria. It is worth noting that malaria transmission does not just depend on the geographical features but also on the type of mosquito vectors and the climatic conditions also referred to as the ecological conditions. This then is a perfect way of measuring the fact that malaria causes more economic problems and poverty for a region than it creates wealth and not the institutions.

Malaria may cause death independently or may be fused with another infection to cause death. There are some deaths that may be due to other reasons or infections but may be related to malaria since the victim may have had malaria on top of the infection that may have killed him. On the other hand, there are some deaths that may be attributed to other infections yet may be having malaria as a co-factor in the death of an individual though not the sole reason to the death of the individual.

It is obvious that malaria is basically a disease of the warm tropical regions due to the fact that the better part of the life of a malaria parasite depends on the high temperatures that are provided by the tropical climate. This is the fact that makes malaria to be the disease of the sub-tropics and the tropics. The malaria parasite also depends on the conducive conditions for the breeding of the mosquito, these are the pools of clean water that are usually occasioned by the rainfall that are collected… [END OF PREVIEW]

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