Processes of Cognitive Thesis

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Processes of Cognitive

Cognitive Processes

Cognitive Processes

Cognitive science is the study of the way that we perceive, think and understand the warlord around us. There are diffident processes that lead to cognition and understanding. These include the way that human beings perceive, analyse and filter information and data from their environment. The literature in this field clearly shows the complexity of the cognitive processes and the unconscious and conscious factors that play a vital role in cognitive development. This study discusses three of the central cognitive processes. These include patterning in perception, sensory memory and aspects of the social cognitive process. These are discussed in relation to various studies and their methodological aspects. What becomes clear from this research is the importance of understanding cognitive processes, particularly with regard to child development. Another factor that emerges from the research is the way that the various cognitive processes are interlinked and interdependent.

1. Introduction

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The term cognition comes for the Latin 'cognoscere', which means "to know" or "to recognize." It should also be noted that cognitive processes can be natural or artificial as well as conscious or unconscious. Cognition is a much debated term in modern psychology and curiousness studies. It is generally discussed in the literature in terms of the way that individual acquires, processes, organizes, retrieves and stores information and knowledge. Cognition also refers to the complex process of thinking and to the way that language and other symbolic modes of knowledge are utilized by the human brain and consciousness.

Thesis on Processes of Cognitive Assignment

In essence, the processes of cognition can be distinguished from the more theoretical and abstract meaning of the term. This includes cognitive processes such as "…exploring, recognizing, organizing, and coding, and structures (internal representations of the external world) such as patterns, categories, networks, and systems that result from the processes" (Cropley, 1999, p. 253).

Theorists also suggest that the cognitive process can be divided into two general and related areas of understanding; namely, the analytic and holistic. The analytic perspective breaks down the input and acquisition of information and data and the holistic attempts to integrate this knowledge into comprehensive wholes for understanding.

Taking into account the broad range of cognitive processes, the following discussion will focus on three central aspects of cognitive process. The intention of this paper is to provide an overview of some of the aspects of the cognitive process and the range of studies in this area.

2. cognitive processes

2.1. Perception and pattern recognition

In order to discuss the processes of cognition we have to distinguish between two central areas of theoretical concern. These are schema and the mental processes. "Cognitive psychology suggests that a mental-model consists of two major components: knowledge structures (schema) and processes for using this knowledge (mental operations)" ( Merrill). In other words, the processes of cognition refer to the 'mental operations' that facilitate cognition.

Perception is an extremely important aspect of cognition as it refers to the way that the child and adult views and first responds to the array of data and information that surrounds him or her in the world. In cognitive studies, perception has two main sub-categories. These are pattern recognition and attention.

Pattern recognition refers to the way that, through experience, we recognize that "….events that repeatedly occur together are recognized as belonging together" (Cropley, 1999, p. 253). This also refers to the way in which human beings develop. Through pattern recognition they,

…come to understand that events have generalized abstract properties, and that these are the basis of belonging together. The abstract properties that are common to a number of individual exemplars define a category or concept such as the category of "weapon" or "tool" or "food"

(Cropley, 1999, p. 253).

In terms of pattern recognition, new events are related to distinctive patterns or perceptual 'codes'. The new patterns are then related by the perceiver to various known categories of perception and "When this pattern is judged to match the definitive properties of a particular category & #8230; the new event is encoded into that category" (Cropley, 1999, p. 253). This is, in brief and put very simplistically, the way in which the individual builds up knowledge and recognizes the world around him or her.

An article that explores that pattern recognition works is Infants' Bimodal Perception of Gender (1991). This article by Walker-Andrews and Bahrick deals with a number of experiments to determine whether "… infants are sensitive to intermodal information specifying gender across dynamic displays of faces and voices "(Walker-Andrews & Bahrick, 1991, p. 55). The experiments were conducted separately and consisted of videotaped presentations to small infants. The responses were measured in terms of recognition and pattern acceptance.

The results were interesting in terms of the way that the infants correlated voice and image in terms of gender. It was found that, "In both experiments the 6-month-olds showed evidence of matching faces and voices on the basis of gender. They significantly increased their looking to a face when the gender-appropriate voice was played" (Walker-Andrews & Bahrick, 1991, p. 55). These experiments therefore show evidence of patterns recognition in perception at a very early age in that "…research about infants' perception of gender information has shown that by about 7 months, infants perceive similarities among same gender faces and same gender voices" (Walker-Andrews & Bahrick, 1991, p. 55).

The methodology used in this study was well devised and comparative. Isolating the two experiments meant that the results could be compared to ensure validity.

2.2 Sensory memory

In terms of cognitive science, the term sensory memory refers to the way that objects or events are perceived and retrained by the brain using several senses. Senses such as seeing, hearing, touching, tasting are used and this information is stored in several interrelated memory networks (Hung, 2003). The importance of this type of memory cognition is that, " A memory stored in this way becomes more accessible and powerful than a memory stored in just one sensory area "… because each sensory memory checks and extends the others" (Hung, 2003). However, sensory memory is also noted as being as a more unorganized, unanalyzed and 'primitive' form of cognition and that most of the information in sensory memory"… fades away before we can do anything with it" (Memory and Cognition). Among the advantages of sensory memory is that it allows us to integrate information across time and space and also to select important stimuli for further processing.

An article that be related to this form of cognition is Auditory sensory memory in 2-year-old children: an event-related potential study by Glass et al. (2008). This study focuses on auditory memory in young children and the role it plays in cognition. The aim of the study was to ascertain the amount of time that 2-year-old children retained auditory sensory memory.

The results of the study were that, "… in 2-year-old children the memory representation of the standard tone remains in the sensory memory store for at least 1 s but for less than 2 s. "( Glass et al. 2008, p. 569) This result was deemed to be a "… useful method for studying the relationship between auditory sensory memory and normal and disturbed cognitive development" ( Glass et al., 2008, p. 569). In other words this measurement could be used as a comparative measure of the cognitive development in children.

The methodology used was qualitative and relatively straightforward in terms of the measurement procedure. However, the experiment did not seem to take into account the different variables that may affect the children's sensory input; and therefore this result could be improved by more comparative studies.

2.3. Social cognitive process

There are a wide range of processes that fall under the category of cognitive development and process. Children learn and encounter the world through interaction with others. This obviously includes the cognitive processes mentioned above. In other words, perception of the world through cognitive processes like patterning and sensory memory also includes relationships and encounters with other individuals.

An article that sheds light on this cognitive process is Can Children Detect Conceptual Information Conveyed Through Other Children's Nonverbal Behaviors? By Kelly and Church ( 1997). This study investigates how children can detect representational gestures. The study involved a total of eighteen children watching videotaped stimuli of children verbally and gesturally explaining a conceptual problem. Various methods were used to determine to what extent the children were able to detect information that was encoded in the speech on gesture on the videotape. The result from this study indicated that, "…multiple methods converge to demonstrate that children attend not only to other children's speech but also to their gestures" (Kelly & Church, 1997, p. 108). This study also shows the importance of the cognitive process involved in nonverbal cues and communication. The result of the study also shows that children can detect specific information conveyed through gesture even when gesture expresses information different from speech. In addition it was found that "… the results from the ready-to-understand assessment… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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