Term Paper: Program Management Projects Compared

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[. . .] Right now a dominant market share is held by the paper segment; this marker share comes up to be about 90%. The software segment is growing very quickly as well. There are various firms that the 10% of the software-based share is divided into. With the increase in the popularity of software-based segment, it is being expected that additional competition will also enter the market.

2.

Economic forces. The overall promotion budget has been reduced by a lot companies throughout the nation as they have come across this need to reduce their expenses. Although, it is the mass media advertising in which most of these reductions have taken place. This trend of reduction is likely to continue due to the weak and slowly growing economy.

3.

Political forces. The operations of the engineering company won't get affected by any of the political events or influences.

4.

Legal and regulatory forces. Recently a lot of attention is being paid to the "junk mail." There is a huge percentage of the specialty advertising which is distributed through the mail and some of it is considered to be "junk." In order to control this tide of the advertisement which is being delivered through the mail, legislation might get introduced. However, the fact that more and more companies now are diverting to this method shows that they don't fear this increase in the legislation.

5.

Technological forces. Personal digital assistants (PDAs) or the personal information managers (PIMs) are now the major technological trends. If these trends continue to increase there will soon be a need for the software-based products to adapt so that they could match this new technology.

6.

Socio-cultural forces. Today, the consumers don't have a lot of time when it comes to work and leisure.

7.

Today, the consumers have very little time with regards to leisure or work. Ease of use and convenience are the hallmarks of successful products today. Therefore, it is very important for the product to be easy to use and save time in order for the consumers to use it.

1.2.1 The Completer Finisher - the appropriate team structure for the structure

The appropriate team structure for the structure is one that iss made up of completer finishers. The terms that are mostly used to describe Completer Finishers are conscientious, painstaking, detailed and orderly. They have this amazing ability of following through and generally if they won't be able to finish something, they don't start it. One of the major contributions that have been made by the Completer Finishers is that they make sure that all the efforts being made by the team are as perfect as they can be (Belbin, 2001).

Allowable weaknesses:

• Anunwillingness to represent - they feel that it much better to get the job done by themselves.

• putting more focus on the detail even if that will affect the outcome of the whole project.

Behaviours to avoid:

• letting anxiety get the better of you and have an impact on the morale of the team as well.

• Not letting the team members help even when you are really overworked.

Top guidelines for Completer Finishers as managers:

• try to get a balance between the practical outcomes that are required for the team and the need that you have for perfection.

• delegation should be done in an effective manner in order to avoid getting overburdened (Belbin, 2001).

2.

Agile Project Management

Agile project management is commonplace and its popularity has increased over the years. "At the end of 2012, agile development process will replace 80% of software development projects. PMI's research shows that agile use has quadrupled from December 2008 to May 2011" (PMI 2012).

Most people deem that agile approach for managing projects is completely diverse from the conventional approach. The definition does vary from the one defined in Project Management Institute Project Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide). In many editions of Kathy Schwalbe's writings, Information Technology Project Management, a case study was given where key outputs shaped up planning, initiating, monitoring, controlling, executing and ending the project to make a website for a phony company called, JWD Consulting. The case employed a waterfall approach / prescriptive approach, the product was completed and delivered as the project ended. The same project is mentioned in the seventh edition of the case, stressing the notable differences when agile method is applied in managing the project. The teachers must be well aware of the agile project management, while teaching project management. They must be able to explain how it can employ and how it's different to conventional forms of project methods (PMI, 2012).

The teams generally don't decide on one project and decide to manage it by the agile project method either. It's more like determining whether to drive on a car or to fly in an airplane. The decision has to be made on one singular item with logic. The person would take an airplane in case a tour is kept to a bare minimum with least sightseeing. In case, tour is necessary with sightseeing along the way, then a car would be selected apparently (Schwalbe, 2014).

In the same way, the organizations must use logic to decide whether to employ agile approach or prescriptive approach for managing their projects. The projects involving inexperienced staff, dispersed teams, heavy criteria and bigger risks clear up the requirements and a completion date is reached by employing a predictive approach. In other case, the projects with less tight constraints require more experienced and dedicated teams, small risks, cloudy demands and extensive scheduling are more aligned with agile approach (Schwalbe, 2014).

In most cases, managing projects engages action from all five portions of project management groups. The paper aims to highlights those tools, terms and outputs engaged in agile projects, while employing all five groups.

2.1

Conventional vs. agile project management

The conventional project management deems rework and change as a pricey aspect of any software development project. In such a case, it tries to lessen, prevent change in documentation, planning and design. The traditional project management deems that if change occurs in a project, inadequate planning, design and documentation are to be blamed for. The conventional techniques advises a development path which moves in an orderly manner by founding subsystems. The founding layers are laid, then middle layers are laid and final touches are laid (Beck, 2000).

Correspondingly, the agile project management (written agile software development techniques) deems failure of a project as an expensive byproduct of the software development process (the product which isn't shipped, gone off awry, market value not visualized and quality upsets) (Beck, 2000).

It means that change is inevitable. Change must be managed instead of preventing. In case of agile project management deems documentation, planning and designing to be kept to a minimum. It is more focused on delivering a working project to the client in question in an efficient manner. Also, the subsystems are built and programs are coded to support the necessary features along the way (Beck, 2000).

2.2

Agile concepts: 'Customer', 'Done' and 'Feature'

The concept of agile project management is based on a few ideas. The decisions, practices and metrics are present in the central concept. For defining the basis of agile project management, three questions must be answered first: What's a feature? When a feature is done? Who is the client?

2.2.1

Defining a customer

The client pays for the product completed, that is a given of course. In case of agile project management, the role of the client is much more than defined apparently. The client is solely responsible for being the main point of contact for deciding the direction, answering tough questions and prioritizing features. They must be closely aligned with the development team. They should be available as full time part of a team and give their input with respect to feedback, testing, decisions, priorities and research work. Many people are engaged in this case, but the client is the single most important entity (Karleskey et al., 2007).

In case of development of complex technologies and coding complex softwares for businesses, more intricate clients can come in the fold. In systems engineering, many clients may exist; so is the case with hardware engineering and marketing for that matter. Their respective decisions cost cash and value must be translated in return. In these events, the project manager should prioritize decisions among the workforce and develop a single course of action to follow (Karleskey et al., 2007).

2.2.2

Defining features

Feature is defined as per the client's requirements. The feature is a small unit of functionality:

1: Explained by the client himself / herself with respect to system behavior instead of implementation details

2: The client must be satisfied with its completion

3: It's quite valuable to the client and he is willing to pay for it generously (Karleskey et al., 2007)

Handy software fulfills the demands and… [END OF PREVIEW]

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