Research Paper: Project Management February J. 2014

Pages: 9 (2863 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 7  ·  Level: Master's  ·  Topic: Business - Management  ·  Buy This Paper

SAMPLE EXCERPT:

[. . .] (Kerry, 2010). A project manager is an important project leader who communicates a project's vision to the subordinates. A project leader plans a project, measures performances of a project and solves problems that could arise from a project implementation. Common leadership styles used to run a project include:

Charismatic

Transformational

Transactional,

Autocratic,

Situational,

Participative,

Autocratic or Democratic.

To achieve organizational goals from a project, a project leader defines the phase of a project which includes:

Technical work to perform in each phase of a project,

The time of deliverable of each project

Stakeholders involved in each phase,

Strategy to implement control and approval in each phase.

A project sponsor also plays a critical role in the success of a project. Involvement of a project sponsor in a project's lifecycle enhances project success. Typically, a project sponsor has to involve in a project leadership selection to enhance success of a project. (Morris, & Pinto, 2010). Typically, the sponsors push projects forward and assist projects to gather momentum. A project sponsor provides necessary resources such as money, manpower and time to enhance the success of a project. For example, NIST provides both project sponsorship and leadership for projects. The NIST directors have overall responsibility for the operations of functional component of a project and they serve as project leaders to manage a project as well as conducting research and development to achieve a project success.

Typically, NIST employs top scientists to ensure a full success of a project. To achieve a project success, NIST also provides sponsorship roles for projects by providing necessary resources such as funding, and manpower to enhance successful project implementation.

"Project Team Building, including Techniques of Successful Team Building"

A project team consists of group of people working together to execute a project to meet stakeholder's requirements. The first step in creating an effective project team is to develop a resources plan to identify the work to be carried out and human resources necessary to implement a project. More importantly, project sponsors are required to refine the breakdown of the resources plan and identify departments and stakeholders to be used for project implementation. Getting the right people for a project is very critical in achieving project success. The following factors are very critical for selecting a project team to enhance a successful team-building:

Team should possess necessary skills to complete a project task,

Capacity of a team to participate effectively in a project,

Technique to achieve a successful team building is to pull together a group of strong and result-oriented group of people for a project.

The NIST has been able to achieve success in its various projects because NIST project's team encompasses range of technical staff that is highly skilled in carrying out project successfully. Typically, the NIST project working team is highly knowledgeable and skilled in various disciplines. Many of the technical staff have specialized skills and advanced degree necessary to carry out challenging, technical and scientific projects.

To enhance successful completion of a project, NIST project manager utilizes skills and knowledge from the external party specialized in various disciplines to complement the skills of the project manager to achieve a project success. The NIST support team building may consist of more than 700 foreign guests researchers with the goal of contributing to different research expertise to achieve a project success.

"Techniques for Project Scope Definition and the Importance of Managing Scope throughout a Project"

Project scope is the processes by which all works required to complete a project are successfully are included. Typically, project scope management defines the tasks to be included and excluded within a project lifecycle. Techniques used for the project scope definition are as follows:

First, it is critical to create a project management planning that will document all the project scope. Moreover, there is a need to develop a scope definition that is related to the project. Further step is to create WBS (Work Breakdown Schedule) and scope verification and scope control.

Managing project scope is very critical for the project success. The importance of managing scope throughout the project lifecycle is to ensure that a project is on budget and time allotted to the project is sufficient. Managing a project scope assists a project manager to stick to the project tasks and not deviating from the project tasks because deviating from the project's task could escalate the project costs and may not meet the requirement of the stakeholders. (Yates & Eskander, 2002).

Moreover, effective managing of project scope assists in reducing project risks within a project lifecycle. For example, NIST effectively manages its project scope to achieve the project success by Developing a project schedule milestones, as well as deliverables.

Identifying and estimating needed resources such as time, workforce, and skills needed, materials, and equipment for the project.

"Creation of a work breakdown structure, and how and project manager breaks down the overall project into packages."

Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) is a hierarchical decomposition of the work that a project team intends to execute. The WBS defines and organizes the total scope of the whole project lifecycle. The NIST project manager breaks the work into a smaller manageable form. The work breakdown of the typical project of NIST is presented in the Table 1 below.

Table 1 NIST Work Breakdown Structure

NIST PROJECT

SYSTEM

Level 1 WBS

NIST

IT Project

Level 2 WBS

Initiation

Phase

Planning

Phase

Execution

Phase

Controlling

Phase

Closing

Phase

Phase

Level 3 WBS

Project

Evaluation

Project Management

Project Management

Project Management

Project Management

Task

Meeting

Requirements

Evaluation & Selection

Cost Control

Closure Report

Administration

System Design Engineering

Design

Quality Control

Closure Checklist

Technical Project Plan

User Documentation

Build

Risk Monitoring & control

Post Implementation Review

Identification & estimation of resources

Organize the Project Team

Test

Manage Stakeholder

Acceptance and adoption of project's results

Cost Estimation

Data Management

Training

Performance Reporting

Project's transition and termination

Implementation

Stabilization

Other

"Evaluating risks, alternatives, and contingency plans"

Risks are important part of the events that could affect the successfully completion of a project.

Thus, risk management is very critical in a project lifecycle to ensure that a project is on budget, timeframe and meet the stakeholders requirements.

Best strategies to manage risks are as follows:

Design a risk register and list all the risks based on their level of importance,

Use different strategy to manage risks which include risk transfer, risk analysis and risk response planning.

Apart from integrating risk management in the project lifecycle, it is very critical to implement contingency plan in case of man-made or natural disasters. The strategy to implement contingency planning is to insure that all important assets used for the project are insured. Moreover, organizations should make a back-up plan for all important data and software used for the project.

Phase Review

A phase review is very critical to project sponsors because it assists in indentifying important phases that have been completed and not completed. The PM (project management) software is also very important for large integrated program because it assists a project manager to stimulate a project before the project's kick off. Project stimulation assists in identifying the risks associated to a project, which will assist a project manager to effectively manage all the risks associated to a project.

Conclusion

Objective of this document is to provide a review of project management principles to achieve organizational objectives. The paper provides examples of case studies of successful projects and the strategies the project stakeholders use in integrating project management model in the project lifecycle. The document uses the case study of NIST project and the Alaska Oil project as typical examples.

Reference

Claude, H.M.(2012). ESI International Project Management: Project Management Concepts, Methods, and Techniques. ESI International Project Management Series.

Cleland, D.I. & Ireland, L.R (2008). Project Manager's Handbook, Chicago, McGraw-Hill.

Kerry, W. (2010). Essential Project Management Skills. Wills CRC Press Taylor & Francis Group .

Morris, P. & Pinto, J.K. (2010). The Wiley Guide to Project Organization and Project Management Competencies, USA. John Wiley & Sons.

Project Management Institute. (1996). A Guide to Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK), USA. PMI Publishing .

Pierre, B.(2012).… [END OF PREVIEW]

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