Research Paper: Project Management and the Transformation

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[. . .] Phillips (2004) asserted that project managers along with the team members come up to the planning processes as many times as they feel a need during the project. Considering the need to continuously modify the planning, experts in project management field recommend that it is the best approach to adopt a continuous planning; this approach has been named as 'progressive elaboration' (Gido & Clements, 2006; Kerzner, 2006a, 2006b; Phillips, 2004; PMI, 2004) in anticipation of the planning baseline has been produced

While going through the planning phase, the project managers and their team members hold meetings, till the time when project is effectual so as to efficiently plan their execution of the project. The activities that take place during planning are, "preparation of the scope, cost, schedule, risks, quality, communication, human resources, contract, and procurement" (PMI, 2004). Planning these abovementioned information area viewpoints requires the conclusion of a WBS to describe the work obligatory to construct the deliverables.

Setting milestone to achieve a target is a basic measure of project management efficiency that project planners mostly utilize so as to make more precise forecasts as well as to lessen prejudices in inference and unwanted behavior effects. The WBS also helps to execute the tasks in a better way and more inexpensively by avoiding the overlap of resources allocations and assign enough time for every project action and a clear target and aim. Other essential activities, as Khang and Moe (2008) described, are, to gather together support and promise; discuss for concluding endorsement from the main stakeholder/s; offer updates for remaining different stakeholders, and envisage an indication of how the project will be implemented, jointly with exact and achievable tasks and signposts prior beginning the execution stage of the project life cycle.

Project Execution Phase

The execution phase of the project starts after project manager and teams carefully develop planned the foundation and ready to execute the project. This process assists the project team and other stakeholders to move forward and complete the work delineated in the planning process. Executing phase of the project also called as the implementation phase in which the outlined plan of the project implemented. This is very important phase in a project life cycle requiring complete commitment of resources and time.

Considering its importance, it is appropriate and necessary that all the personnel who take part in the planning process of the project are included in the implementation process so as to effectively execute the project (PMI, 2004). The key processes related to this stage are to perform the project activities as intended in the project planning phase and to deal with all stakeholders effectively (Khang & Moe, 2008) as well as to make sure that the project is on target.

Organizing the Project Teams

After the project manager, project team is also a major stakeholder in the project and it is necessary to select the project team carefully. As asserted by Adam (2009), building high-quality teams is not an accidental thing. It requires the careful determination of a goal-orientated participation that promotes better self-awareness. Project teams are the individuals who work beside project managers to carry out the actual work (Huemann, 2010); a group of mutually dependent persons working considerately to attain the project goal (Gido & Clements, 2006); a compilation of personnel who will work jointly to make sure the achievement of the project; the group that is doing project work and completing assigned tasks to achieve the project target (PMI 2004); or the cluster of people working towards a general object to attain success.

An effective project management needs not only redesigned project mechanisms and new technologies but also proper qualified, skilled and trained workers in all the areas who have ability to make right decisions; put together, apply and renovate data and information into knowledge; and take steps necessary for attainment of the project objectives. The significance of the project team, therefore, must not be overlooked in a project. In addition to adapting new technology, I will also recommend to my organization that project teams and staff should be given the importance they deserve and as a project manager I will very carefully select my team I know, with technology, organizational issues are solved almost 50%, but the other 50% issues are not concerned with technology; but, are related to people. Project management techniques are not the only that manage projects but it is team and manager who do. It is evident from the previous research that mostly organization say regularly that "people are their greatest asset," yet hardly any carry out what they advocate, but, I will make it sure that all the personnel working under me are given chances to develop and utilize their full talent.

Similarly Drucker's claim, Pinto (2007) argued that majority of the organization focus on managing the capital assets with no any actual dimensions to check and make the most of a company's main asset: its people. Consequently, Pinto recommended that effectual practices insist that people must be given value, performance should be appraised, and they should be developed accordingly as they are vibrant assets that can amplify in worth with time; they symbolize the lingering assets of an industry after the whole lot has been eradicated, and company and shareholder values frequently suffer when human capital is not properly managed.

Gelbard and Carmeli (2009) recommended that there is need to use group discussion and role-playing so as to make the most of a company's biggest asset, the project team. He also suggested that critical and integrative thinking must be emphasized within team as this will prove to be a critical input that opens information potentials and helps innovative ideas within the project team. Huemann (2010) also supported that stated that finding innovative methods for working jointly as a team is the most excellent move toward for creating enthusiasm and maximizing the team members' participation while breeding better solution and escalating group competence. As per Hansson (2007), "decisions made in groups such as committees, task forces, review panels, and study teams have an across-the-board impact on organizational activities and workforce."

Many techniques are there that project teams can use to generate new Ideas. These include; "brainstorming, the Delphi technique, nominal group technique, Crawford slip, expert interviews, checklists, analogy techniques and diagramming techniques" (PMI, 2004). Among these techniques among these that cannot be put into practice due their cost and time consuming, but if applied their advantages to enhance project efficiency overshadow their disadvantages.

By using these techniques, project teams and management can't lessen the risks associated with the project inherently. These techniques assist the team and leader in decision-making process; inspire confidence and persuade criticism in the team; promote the growth of highly original explanations and solutions for tough challenges (Kerzner, 2006a); and are obliging when an organization requires to getaway of stale. Conventional prototypes of thinking are a new way of looking at project issues. Additionally, they create ideas within the organization, in particular when the association requires developing new occasions, making better project usefulness; and development of planned initiatives (Olsson, 2006), particularly when on hand business plans be unsuccessful to distribute the preferred finish result. Hence, as stated by Virine and Trumper (2008) "decision making is a skill that can be improved with experience and training." As a project manager, I will encourage group discussions and put into practice the above mentioned techniques as and when required to obtain better solution of a problem.

Performance Appraisal

There are several researchers like Bacal (1999) and Randi, Toler, and Sachs (1992) who argued that managers and employees should discuss the evaluation process constructively. According to Walker, the purpose should be to clarify, to motivate, and direct. This, according to Walker, limits the need for any unilateral communication of appraisal results or any direct discussion of pay actions as they relate to appraisals. "The mutual discussion should eliminate the potential of surprises later in the year when compensation changes are communicated or other personnel actions are taken which relate to performance (terminations, transfers, training, etc.)" (Walker, 1980 p. 213).

According to Covey (1992) in a win-win agreement, people evaluate themselves. "Since they have a clear, up-front understanding of what results are expected and what criteria are used to assess their performance, they are in the best position to evaluate themselves" (Covey, 1992 p. 196). Covey also said that the old notion in which the manager evaluates the performance of employees, sometimes using a secret set of subjective criteria that he springs on them at the end of a specified work period. Such a method, is insulting to people, and often negatively impacts the manager's appraisal. Thus, unless expectations are clarified and commitments are initially, people can expect performance appraisals to be difficult, embarrassing, and sometimes down right insulting (Covey, 1992).

According to Covey, in a win-win wherein everyone involved in a situation wins, a manager's attitude is helpful not judgmental. The manager identifies himself as are source.… [END OF PREVIEW]

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APA Format

Project Management and the Transformation.  (2011, August 15).  Retrieved May 21, 2019, from

MLA Format

"Project Management and the Transformation."  15 August 2011.  Web.  21 May 2019. <>.

Chicago Format

"Project Management and the Transformation."  August 15, 2011.  Accessed May 21, 2019.