Article Review: Propaganda Whitney, C. &amp Wartella

Pages: 9 (3014 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 9  ·  Level: College Junior  ·  Topic: Women's Issues - Sexuality  ·  Buy This Paper

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[. . .] The main thing that Morel emphasizes on is the using the blacks in their troops to fulfill their war. Africans had no option but to follow their masters. His last impact was in Scotland, where the committee on social problems of the united Church of Scotland investigated the charges made against the French troops, and concluded they were true. The church cited Morels writing as proof of their accusations.

Malamuth, M.N. (2001). Pornography. Elsevier Science Ltd.

Pornography refers to all sexually explicit media whose main intent is to arouse the audience sexually. Obscenity means any pornographic material considered illegal by the legal system. Due to advancement in new types of media, for instance the internet, feasibility of governments to restrict pornographic content is very low. Sexually explicit media have various effects including the difference in studies, sexual aggression, and many others. Research on effects of pornography says that sexual criminals were more easily aroused than non-criminals in laboratory studies were. In addition, criminals may be less aroused sexually than non-criminals but likely to engage in sexual activity following exposure of any type.

Man studies suggest that there exist gender differences in consumption of sexually explicit media. In addition, research says that men consume explicit media regularly in comparison to women. In addition, men are sexually aroused, and react less negatively, nudity of the opposite sex compared to their female counterparts. Again, men are more likely to consume explicit media that emphasize sexual communion. The consumption of sexually explicit media might be because of different evolved psychological mechanisms adapting to the available environmental factors.

Research on pornography has faced major influence by individuals whereby ideologies or biased political perspective. These individuals end up providing conclusions on the same, which are self, centered. The biases enhance framing of research questions that develop some studies in a way suited for simple conclusions while discarding the complicated conclusions. This often leads to a single-handed set of conclusions, but research requires multi-handed conclusions, which leave room for discussion. This research leaves the reader with many questions about the credibility of information in such an article.

Gullace, F.N. ().Sexual Violence and Family Honor: British Propaganda and International Law during the First World War. The American Historical Review, (102)3,714-747.

The atrocity propaganda had no gender violence in the sense that it never dealt with acts of cultural destruction, maiming the elderly, and violence against women. It gained prominence in British depiction of war. Scholars had showed great interest in interrelationship of internal affair gender and cultural ideas. The scholars started investigating the importance of the findings of women history. These scholars have started investigating the importance of the findings of the history of women. There is ignorance of the atrocity accounts, which play a principal role in international history and domestic politics.

It was also evident that the propaganda had no political aims, but it exposed the brutality of the German Army. There was a formation of a campaign, which appealed for consciousness in protecting the families. This made it hard for Britain to fight for only freedom in Europe but in detaining their families. The Germans believed that Belgium took part with the guerrilla soldiers from France and forcefully punished the sniper attacks. Bryce, who was a German sympathizer, literally accused the Belgium civilians of militating, and killing a German injured soldier while it was evident that the Germans were the ones who had invaded Belgium.

Bryce had not interviewed any witness who he had claimed was a Belgium refugee in Britain, but rather he collected all the deposition from lawyers who had not taken any oaths. The destruction of the original document at Britain home office made it hard for any investigations carried out. It was clear that the Belgium civilian had not committed any crimes, and the blamed had no ground. The blame should direct to the German soldiers, who had committed serious crimes against the citizen of Belgium in the name of guerrilla soldiers who they claimed had attacked them.

Wilson, T. (1979). Lord Bryce's Investigation into Alleged German Atrocities in Belgium,

Journal of Contemporary History, 14(3), 369-383.

In the 1914, the Belgium government issued three reports on crimes committed the invasion of Belgium. James Bryce chaired German Outrage inquiry Committee, which would conduct a review on the materials, collected as deposition and by doing so provide a report. Specifically the report was to determine whether German soldiers were directly, or led by their official to cause violence, and commit inhuman acts in Belgium that led to thousands of Belgium civilians to be refugees in Britain after German invaded Belgium.

James Bryces had been a British ambassador in Washington. He had sought accommodation in German, well-known to be a German sympathizer and an admirer of their culture. Due to unclear reasons Britain believed in him that, he would have brought credible and truthful information. In the beginning of 1915, Harold Cox began to have doubts on how the Bryce's investigation. He requested that all the witness interviewed to do it again; he also threatened to resign from the committee if his request did not get an honor. Bryces agreed, and he had to re-write the report and assured Cox to reject any evidence he suspected to be a fraud. The committee had interviewed 1200 witnesses in which 500 statements included in the report. There were also additional 37 personal diaries found on the German dead soldiers. The information collected by the British lawyers was mainly to collect the witness accounts. The committee wrote all its findings in a legal way to appear professional. The deposition and evidence ware then analyzed and stored at British Home Office for protection.

The Bryce report made a publication in the White book. The white book contained information showing how Belgians civilians had killed, amputated ears and noses, and pulled out eyes of the injured German soldiers. After World War 1, the original documents of the deposition that had secured in British home office disappeared. This made it impossible for other investigators to determine whether Bryce's report was credible. The deposition obtained by Bryce was from British lawyers who had taken no oaths. It also came to their attention that the committee had not interviewed any real witness but depended on hearsay and lawyers who were not under oath.

Vries, P. (2005). White slaves in a colonial nation: the Dutch Campaign against the Traffic in Women in the Early Twentieth Century. Journal of social legal studies, 14, 39.

In this article, it clearly states that prostitution is because of poverty. The cartels promised women good jobs, good working conditions, and better pay. In early 1900 and late 1800, women are dependent and submissive to men. This submission caused the moral decadence and vigorous increase in prostitution. After the cartels promised them jobs, the women said that they realized it was a trick and later come to learn that their roles as prostitutes. The white slave traffic act took effect in 1910, and the law outlawed any trafficking of young women across the states line. Policing of young women also was a measure of reducing prostitution.

Abolitionist movement also comes out where its main aim was to abolish the white slave trade. The abolitionist mainly defended the fate of young women, and tried to educate women on major issues as being independent to avoid the mistreatments by men who were commonly the breadwinners in the early days. The formation of an international campaign was a main setback to the abortionist who depended on visionary speakers and people while the organization proffered diplomats. The organizations made it hard for the abolitionist to abolish the trade as the organization directly or indirectly favored the dignitary support rather than the peoples.

It is not clear in some circumstances whether the women claiming that the cartels promised them better jobs voluntarily agreed to work as sex workers, or it was not their will. Some of the victims depicted here were also from a rich family background hence ruling out the fact that poverty could be the factor leading to their prostitution. The abolitionist and the white slavery act law also did not take into consideration and put measures that would prevent male prostitution, which could also be possible.

References

Whitney, C. & Wartella, E. (2001). Violence and Media. International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences.

Klarer, M. (2005). Pornography: John Gabriel Stedman's Narrative of a Five Years Expedition against the Revolted Negroes of Surinam (1796). New Literary History, 36(4), 559-587.

Roos, J. (2012). Nationalism, Racism and Propaganda in Early Weimar Germany: Contradictions in the Campaign against the 'Black Horror on the Rhine'. German History, 30(1), 45 -- 74.

Entrant, R.M. (2001). Mass Media, Representations in. Elsevier Science Ltd.

Malamuth, M.N. (2001). Pornography. Elsevier Science Ltd.

Gullace, F.N. ().Sexual Violence and Family Honor: British Propaganda and International Law during the First World War. The American Historical Review, (102)3,714-747.

Wilson, T.… [END OF PREVIEW]

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