Thesis: Proper Bite Registration in Removable and Fixed Prosthesis

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¶ … transfer of maxillomandibular relationship from patient's mouth to articulator is one of the most essential procedures in the prosthodontic. There are important skills and techniques that should be followed and applied by clinicians as well as lab technicians to obtain accurate and precise restoration either without or with minimum occlusal adjustment upon cementation. In addition to that, the muscles of the jaws might change in length and affects the patient's bite. On the other hand, patients might bite in different positions than his normal bite due to lack of enough instructions and guide. The bite registration has been reported in the literature with some controversy, and this is due to multiple variables related to the technique, the material used, the patient, the technician, or the dentist.

This paper will review the literature, to describe and evaluate the important variables to produce an accurate bite Registration. This will help in providing easy delivery and cementation of prosthesis and restorations, with minimal occlusal adjustment upon cementation and insertion in the patient mouth.


Owen defines occlusion as, "The static relationship between the incising and masticatory surfaces of the maxillary or mandibular teeth or tooth analogues." In addition, he illustrates the significance of Occlusion, "Occlusion has been described as the most important subject in all the disciplines of dentistry, and for good reason, because the way the teeth come together, and function together, is as important to most of us now as it was to our ancestors, who lived on diets much more difficult to cope with. When, as dentists, we are faced with the problem of replacing occlusal surfaces, either by restorations in natural teeth, or replacement of some or all of the teeth, then a thorough knowledge of the way teeth come together and function together, is essential."

He further illustrates, "Occlusion has unfortunately also been described as one of the most confusing subjects in all the disciplines of dentistry (mostly by each generation of dental students). Attempts to understand occlusion have ranged from the mechanical, mathematical and geometrical analysis of tooth contact and jaw movement, to the biological and functional analyses based on the behavior of natural dentitions under different environmental (mostly dietary) conditions. All of these analyses have their place but they need to be brought together into a unified concept, and this is rarely done."

As mentioned above, occlusion can be considered to be one of the most significant factors in dentistry for the reason that the success of dental treatment relies very heavily on the relationship between maxilla and mandible. Dental occlusion or the maximum intercuspation as it is known is the normal spatial relation of the teeth when the maxilla and mandibular jaw come together in contact. However there are three factors that affect occlusion, teeth, muscles and tenpromandibular joint, all working together to produce the best bite possible. Dental Practitioners nowadays are challenged to provide reliable bite registration that register correct occlusal relationship between maxilla and mandible during construction of Fixed partial denture and Removable prosthesis (Warren and Capp, 1990).

Few years back, the most common problem encountered by the prosthodontists and general dentists is ill-fitting dental restorations. When they receive the fabricated restoration from dental laboratory technician most of them are with high occlusal contact, the dentist spend several minutes in adjusting the prosthesis in the patient mouth. The restoration fitting nicely on the master casts on the articulator, and that was according to the bite registration which did not duplicate the jaws relation in proper position. Dentist usually blame the dental technician for that ill-fitting restoration, however he is the one who register the bite wrongly. In fact, review and follow up of the patients cooperation, muscle dysfunction, centric relation, centric occlusion, occlusal vertical dimension, temporomandibular joint status, these factors are the basic principles in obtaining the accurate bite registration (Warren and Capp, 1990).

Lack of proper bite registration may affect function, stability, aesthetics and the overall comfort of the prosthesis. Achieving a correct bite registration create an occlusal scheme that allows the patient to move through the full range of functional movement without interference. The type of occlusal relationship selected, articulator, bite registration technique are important in achieving proper bite and successful prosthesis (Warren and Capp, 1990).

The most common errors found due to improper bite registration are improper vertical dimension, lacking stability in centric occlusion, and occlusal interferences in eccentric movement. In addition to improper prosthesis lab work, some of the dentists have inadequate information and skills to register their patients' bite properly, especially for complex and comprehensive cases with missing multiple missing posterior teeth. Patients needs occlusion reconstruction, whether it is removable prosthesis or fixed partial denture will require more time in the clinic to achieve accurate bite registration and interocclusal record materials with minimal dimensional change in order to record precise maxillomandibular relation (Warren and Capp, 1990).

3-Aims of This paper:

To determine and discuss all the important points in registration of an accurate interocclusal relationship for fabrication of prosthesis and to keep away dental practitioners from massive adjustment upon cementation and chair side insertion of the prosthesis.


The achievement of this paper is to minimize the error produced during interocclusal record:


Identify the causes that affect an accurate bite registration in prosthodontics.


Enhance of knowledge of understanding on the proper ways to recording bite registration.


Discus the importance of Articulator selection.


Discus how variables of occlusion among patients affect the restoration of a posterior tooth.


Identify the muscle role in bite registration.

4-Basic principles:

Before starting the bite record there is some essential factors and techniques should be followed and evaluated from the clinician and dental lab technician to obtain the accurate restoration with a successful occlusal contact that include:


Tmpromandibular joint and Muscles


Centric occlusion


Centric relation.


Occlusal Vertical dimensional.

4.1-Centric occlusion:


As mentioned above, occlusion, in the context of dentistry refers to the manner wherein the upper teeth and the lower teeth of a patient join and meet together. At first, Occlusion was described as the manner wherein each tooth in the mouth joined its counterpart in the opposite arch. Centric occlusion can be defined as the position of teeth when they come together in maximum occluding intercuspation according the normal patients bite (Davies and Gray, 2001). Dawson said this term is used when the occlusal surfaces of both maxilla and mandibular fit together in maximum contact regardless of condylar position (Dawson, 1974). Another author defined centric occlusion as long centric occlusion, when the lower teeth are in maximum contact with the upper teeth and the lower jaw can move freely 1 to 1.5 mm anteriorly (Christensen, 2004). In addition, Owen defies centric occlusion as, "The occlusion of opposing teeth when the mandible is in centric relation. This may or may not coincide with maximum intercuspation."

So in short, centric occlusion is a concept that is used to illustrate the location of the lower jaw at the time when the upper and lower teeth are completely occluded (joined). This differs from one person to another as it relies on both the number as well as the position of teeth in both jaws. In the figure below, all 32 teeth are not only present but they are also occluding (i.e. biting) in a relationship referred to as class I. This, however, can alter at any point in time in an individual's life as this relies on issues such as:

1. The teeth/tooth being lost (and the subsequent shifting of the teeth that occurs after teeth have been cut off),

2. Jaw-line fractures,

3. Teeth's orthodontic shifts to newer locations, or

4. The teeth movement because of the continuous force from bruxing.

When the upper and the lower teeth are completely occluded, the condyle is pressured to move into a precise location inside the "glenoid fossa." It should be noted here that the concept "centric occlusion" does not take into consideration the joint configuration. An individual's centric occlusion might be either physiologic or pathologic. Physiologic centric occlusion means that the upper and the lower teeth are positioned in a very comfortable location. Pathologic centric occlusion means that the upper and lower teeth are forced in an eccentric location that might generate dysfunction of the joints (Sharry, 1973).

4.1.2-mechanism and philosophy of the centric occlusion

In the normal occlusion the upper and lower teeth contact in the maximum intercuspation and both condyle are comfortably seated in the gelenoid fossae without any interference (see figure 1). It should be noted here that in nearly ten percent of the population the centric occlusion coincides with the centric relation (Rosenstiel and Land, 2001). This means that the force acting on both the upper and lower teeth ought to be distributed equally to generate teeth stabilization. Furthermore the maximum intercuspation depends on the number of posterior teeth present along with the tempromandibular joint (TMJ) and canine guidance (Dawson, 2007; Rosenstiel and Land, 2001).

Figure 1:

The TMJ is the ball… [END OF PREVIEW]

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Cite This Thesis:

APA Format

Proper Bite Registration in Removable and Fixed Prosthesis.  (2009, October 31).  Retrieved June 16, 2019, from

MLA Format

"Proper Bite Registration in Removable and Fixed Prosthesis."  31 October 2009.  Web.  16 June 2019. <>.

Chicago Format

"Proper Bite Registration in Removable and Fixed Prosthesis."  October 31, 2009.  Accessed June 16, 2019.