Proposition #209 in California Term Paper

Pages: 8 (2431 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: ≈ 15  ·  File: .docx  ·  Level: College Senior  ·  Topic: Race

Meanwhile, during the same time frame, African-Americans made up 11.5% of students at the University of Southern California Law School (a private institution not guided by #209's anti-affirmative action rules), and black students comprised 8% of students at Stanford Law School, another private institution.

In virtually all eight University of California campuses, "admission rates for black and Latino students dropped by more than 25%" (Johnson & Pachon, 2001), and the falloff at UC Berkeley and UCLA was even more dramatic: African-Americans experienced more than a 50% drop in admissions, while the Latino admission rate dove by more than 40%. Doing the math a little further, there was a system-wide drop of 6,500 in the number of black and Latino freshmen in 2001 as compared with 1997, the year #209 went into effect. And ironically, during that same time period, Latino high school student applications to all UC campuses increased by two-thirds. The data contradicts the argument that #209 is having "no significant effect."

If one looks closely at the number of minority students turned away institutionally from an opportunity to learn at a fine UC university, it is an extremely significant consequence of Proposition #209.Buy full Download Microsoft Word File paper
for $19.77

Term Paper on Proposition #209 in California the Assignment

Additional data, which clearly substantiates Prop. #209's negative effect on "state educational services," is provided by "The Office of Student Research" which is a division of "Undergraduate Affairs" at the University of California, Berkeley. The percentage of "Hispanic" ("Chicano" or "Latino") students at UC Berkeley (undergraduates and graduate students) in 1996 was 12.1%. But by 2001, the percentage of Hispanics at UC Berkeley had fallen to 9%. And, as far as black students at UC Berkeley are concerned - in 1996 the percentage of blacks was 5.5, but in 2001 blacks made up just 3.8% of the UC Berkeley student body. Even Native Americans (California was originally their land) have taken a hit from Proposition #209. In 1996, 1.1% of the UC Berkeley student body was Native American, and in 2001, that dipped to just 0.6% of the student population.

And there has been an impact on the downward side when it comes to the hiring of women professors by UC: in 1994, women made up 37% of the new hires on UC campuses, but in 1998, a year after Proposition #209 cleared through the legal challenges, women only accounted for 27% of UC's new hires (Black Issues in Higher Education, 2001).


The final chapter in the saga of Proposition #209 will not be written for a long time, but fragments of information trickling out indicate there may be years of what Muhammad Ali used to call "rope-a-dope," each side taking a few punches while the opponent bides time against the ropes prior to lashing out with a few new licks of his own. The enforcement of #209 is in the hands of the "Pacific Legal Foundation" (PLF) which sued the Berkeley Unified School District (Egelko, 2003) in August; PLF contends that the Berkeley district seeks an enrollment at each school within 5% of the district's overall racial population, and that is said to violate #209. But for every lawsuit brought by PLF, there appears to be evidence of non-compliance somewhere else. For example: a) the city of San Francisco "still reviews contracting bids by minority-owned firms as if they were as much as 10% below their real price" (Johnson, 2001); b) the Sacramento Municipal Utility District gives preference to blacks and Latino business owners; c) at the Los Angeles County Hall of Administration, there still are "goals and timetables" for minority participation (28.3% minority; 6.9% female) in hiring procedures; d) Huntington Beach Union High School District adheres to a policy utilizing the color of one's skin as a factor in requests to transfer from one high school to another - if that transfer leads to "too few" whites or "too many" non-whites. These cases to the contrary notwithstanding, the main impact felt following the implementation of #209 has been in the free-fall of minority enrollment at state-sponsored universities. It is also worth mentioning, though, that there has been a "language impact" outcome in all of this which favors the conservative, anti-affirmative action side, when it comes to media "sound bites" presented to voters. "Proposition 54...the 'Racial Privacy Initiative,' is another in a series of coups for conservative wordsmiths," wrote Miriam Pepper in the Kansas City Star's editorial pages (August, 2003). "Who could possibly oppose privacy, especially on a topic as loaded as race...It's another case where conservatives have outwitted liberals in the word game to frame public issues." Well, if it is a word game, and there is much at stake, and the Connerlys are winning, where does that leave blacks and Latinos (78% of blacks and 66% of Latinos support maintaining affirmative action programs according to Public Policy Institute of California, while only 27% of whites indicate support)?


Black Issues in Higher Education (2001). UC Hiring Fewer Women Professors

After Prop. 209. 18, 12.

California Secretary of State (1996). Vote96 - an Analysis of Proposition 209

By Legislative Analyst; Official Title and Summary prepared by the Attorney


Chemerinsky, Erwin (Aug. 22, 2003). Why California's racial privacy initiative is Unconstitutional.

Egelko, Bob (2003, Aug. 8). Prop. 209 backers sue Berkeley schools over racial balance program. San Francisco Chronicle, p. A-19.

Johnson, Harold, & Pachon, Harry P. (2001). Symposium: Affirmative Action in California. Insight on the News, 17, 40-47.

Office of Student Research (2001). Percent of UC Berkeley Undergraduate and Graduate Students Combined by Ethnicity. Division of Undergraduate Affairs,

University of California - Berkeley.

Public Policy Institute of… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

Two Ordering Options:

Which Option Should I Choose?
1.  Buy full paper (8 pages)Download Microsoft Word File

Download the perfectly formatted MS Word file!

- or -

2.  Write a NEW paper for me!✍🏻

We'll follow your exact instructions!
Chat with the writer 24/7.

Racism and the Rise of Multiculturalism Term Paper

21 Century Racism and How it Affects Education Term Paper

Foundationally Promising Research Discoveries of the Twentieth Term Paper

Benefits of Affirmative Action Essay

Affirmative Action in Hiring Affrimative Research Paper

View 200+ other related papers  >>

How to Cite "Proposition #209 in California" Term Paper in a Bibliography:

APA Style

Proposition #209 in California.  (2003, August 26).  Retrieved September 21, 2020, from

MLA Format

"Proposition #209 in California."  26 August 2003.  Web.  21 September 2020. <>.

Chicago Style

"Proposition #209 in California."  August 26, 2003.  Accessed September 21, 2020.