Research Paper: Proton and Carbon NMR

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Proton and Carbon NMR

In chemistry one of the most common issues is constant change. This is based on chemical properties continually transforming into different states. In some cases, these shifts are visible to naked eye. While at other times, they are visible only through specialized tools. When it comes to the use of Proton and carbon, these changes are visible by looking at the nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry (NMR). This is a device that will examine what is happening by focusing on the carbon skeleton and the hydrogen molecules that are attached to them (from different environments). (Carey, 2008, pg. 517) to fully understand how this is occurring we will examine the use of protons / carbon NMR structure determination, 2D NMR and the contributions in learning about the nuclear structure of molecules. This is when we can see how changes will occur in the chemical composition of a substance.

The Use of Proton and Carbon NMR for Structure Determination.

Using carbon NMR, the entire structure of the atom is exposed to radiation. The way this works is a series of photons are sent directly into the nucleus of the atom. To enhance the ability to see inside the genetic structure, carbon is connected to the NMR. This allows chemists to influence the characteristics of the atom by changing it from slower to higher speeds. When this occurs, is the point that scientists will be able to see the detailed composition of the atom. (Carey, 2008, pp. 517 -- 521)

Using this basic approach requires looking at the overall amounts of radiation that was sent through the nucleus and the impact of speed on the atom. Inside the nucleus there are protons. They have a similar spin range with quantum numbers of +1/2 to -1/2. This has an effect on how fast the atom is moving and energy that is being generated. What scientists have found is that when the atom is an extremely slow state. They can use carbon NRM to see its molecular structure. (Carey, 2008, pp. 517 -- 521) (Carey, 2008, pp. 543-547)

To do this they will look at the spectra using a tool called a spectrometer. This is a large microscope with a powerful alignment that allows scientist to change the state of the atom. The way that this is accomplished is through adjusting the frequency of the radio waves that are transmitted through the nucleus. The intensity of radio waves is measured on the spectra scale.

For example, if chemists wanted to excite the atom they could increase the overall amounts of radio waves going into the nuclei. This is one side of the scale. In the middle, is when the magnification can be reduced to the point that the reactions of protons will be steady and less excited. This is accomplished by having a stream of consistent radio wave penetrating the nucleus. At the other end of the scale, is when radio waves are reduced to the point that the state of the atom will slow dramatically. This causes the protons to become sluggish and enter suspended state of movement. (Carey, 2008, pp. 517 -- 521) (Carey, 2008, pp. 543-547)

The way that this helps in structure determination is by allowing scientists to see the atom in different states. While allowing them to go from one state to other and watch how the atom reacts to a host of environments. This is when researchers can study the atom in more detail and understand its structural composition. Carbon is used to enhance the overall intensity of radio waves. Whereas the protons, will become excited when they react with the radio waves from the spectrometer. This is telling us about the molecules underlying composition and how it changes at different states. This is when we can see how the atom will react to a host of environments. In order to better understand the different ways specific compounds are reacting to each other. (Carey, 2008, pp. 517 -- 521) (Carey, 2008, pp. 543-547)

2D NMR

2D NMR is when two different radio waves are transmitted into the nucleus. This is designed to provide scientists with a unique understanding of the molecular structure of the atom. To see more effectively, there are two different kinds of spectroscopy that are used these include: COSY and HETCOR. Both offer chemists a unique way of looking at the molecule and learning about its genetic structure. (Carey, 2008, pp. 547-548)

COSY

A correlated spectroscopy (COSY) is when you are taking the radiation inside the nucleus and you are coupling them with protons. This is essential in understanding how well a molecule can be able to bond with other compounds. For example, if scientists want to combine hydrogen (H) with oxygen (O) to create water. They would use COSY as a way to understand its bonding properties. This helps them in creating compounds that can be more durable or deal with specific issues (based upon the chemical properties when it is combined with other substances). Using this system is when we can look for cross coordinates that have similar properties. These are then marked with an x or y to identify the chemical shift of the proton. This technique is important, because it is helping scientists to understand the chemical properties of the protons and how they react with other substances. It is at this point that the molecular structure can be used to create different compounds by combining these properties together. (Carey, 2008, pp. 547-549)

HETCOR

The hetroonuclear chemical shift correlation (HETCOR) is when you are taking two frequencies axes and looking for chemical changes inside the nuclei. Using this basic approach it is possible to take carbon (C) and combine it with another proton. This is different from COSY which is much simpler. Instead, scientists are looking for some kind of match with particular patterns inside the nuclei. This is accomplished by focusing on general characteristics. A few of the most notable include: the width and size of the signal. This helps scientists know how to be able to create or take apart compounds by understanding these basic areas. (Carey, 2008, pp. 549-550)

These elements are highlighting how 2D NMR is used to be able to more specifically understand the chemical composition of the nuclei. This is helping researchers to be able to create compounds by combining two different substances together. While at the same time, it is allowing them to take various compounds apart. This is important, because using these techniques will help chemists to create or breakdown specific molecules (which is addressing a host of challenges). (Carey, 2008, pp. 549-550)

The Contributions in Understanding the Nuclear Structure of Molecules

The use of NMR applications has been shown to be an effective study for dealing with a number of issues. This is from the radio waves being used to continually understand the genetic structure of the atom. One of the most notable applications is H. bonding. This is used to tie different compounds together with other substances. This is when the structure of the atom can be carefully examined and scientists can create new compounds. It is this point that their understanding of the structure and how it is connected to other molecules improves dramatically. As a result, the use of NMR techniques can help map the genetic structure. While at the same time, it allows chemists to see how substances react in different states. This is when they will have the most complete picture of the compound. (Bachovchin, 2001, pp. 199 -- 213)

Evidence of this can be seen with observations from Bachovchin (2001) who wrote, "The story of H-bonding in this highly scrutinized family of enzymes, as revealed by NMR and x-ray crystallography, is to a large extent the foundation upon which our understanding of the catalytic mechanism of this archetypical enzyme system rests." (Bachovchin, 2001, pg. 199) This is significant, because it is showing how H. bonding is a cornerstone of Chemistry. The ability to understand these bonds and their basic structure is what will help scientists to know the genetic makeup of a molecule. This is when they can make changes to its composition and transform the states of the atom. The way that this helps in determining the composition of the molecular structure is to see the nuclei of the atom up close. While at the same time, it is allowing chemists to understand how the atom is reacting in different states.

As a result, 2D NMR provides everyone with a more in depth understanding of the molecule that they are examining. Like what was stated previously, this is based on using two different radio waves in conjunction with one another to know what is happening. This is the point that this information can be utilized to look at the chemical composition of the nuclei. There are two basic approaches that are used in understanding the composition of the molecules to include: COSY and HETCOR. ("Thomaston," 2006)

COSY is useful because it allows… [END OF PREVIEW]

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