Research Paper: Psycho-Educational Models of Family Therapy

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[. . .] Hence, the individual must differentiate between the intellectual self and the emotional self; he focuses on how the recognition of the self must occur first before differentiation can take place. This also engages other separations like from parents, women, friends, etc. (taken from chapter 8).

Triangles (Brief summary)

Bowen asserts that the triangles are used as a 3-person relationship structure that embodies the expansive emotional structures and is usually structured whereby two persons emotionally involved or in a problematic emotional state are put in a controlled environment using a third person as the interventionist. The third person then serves as the source of reason and one who finds common ground and serves as the link that helps separate the intellect and the emotions (taken from chapter 8).

Nuclear family emotional system

An emotional structure in a Nuclear family can only remain stable if and when every individual recognizes the self and remains differentiated in every aspect. An important aspect of the nuclear family emotional setup is that the reason behind the use of multigenerational theories for this structure lies in the fact that most severe problems that occur in the nuclear families are mainly because of the roots of differentiation and generation deep issues (taken from chapter 8).

Family Projection Process

The concept of self program and the way people interact is a major part of the family projection process as every individual interacts differently with a member of the family; even parents interact differently with each child. This is also quiet obvious in the spouse selection process. This is also where differentiation plays a huge part as once the individuality in each person is recognized, the projection would become more equal and fair (taken from chapter 8).

Emotional cut-off

The fact is that if and when parents are able to disengage the process of fusion (i.e. focus on one child approach), they are most likely to help the children attain a more balanced approach between intellect and emotion. However, Bowen emphasizes that if this fusion is completely ignored, emotional cut-off can take place whereby children will cut-off any and all emotional ties to parents and/or family in order to maintain their individuality (taken from chapter 8).

Multi-generational Transmission Process

The theory comprised of multigenerational transmission procedures which entails the fact of differences witnessed among offspring lead and their parents that is spread over many generations to be labeled as marked differences between the members. The main roots causing the difference are carried forward through solid connections. There are quite a few combined levels with which the transmission takes place ranging from the conscious methods of teaching to the sub-conscious automated programming tools judging the behavior and emotions. Genetically and from a logical perspective an individual's self existence is shaped through the interaction of transmitted information (taken from chapter 8).

Sibling Positioning

The efforts of parents in determining the upbringing of their offspring is a major factor in determine the amount of differentiation of self that is attained. Individuals' response towards their siblings and how their parents treat their siblings, attitudes, moods, and their dependant nature all these combine together and results in differentiated levels being developed for people with respect to signs of similarity between their parents levels (Toman, 1961 taken from chapter 8).

Societal Regression (brief)

The societal regression is the hindrance that one faces towards differentiation on a much larger social scale then in the familial structures. Once these forces like increasing population, decreasing employment, economic strains etc. take over, differentiation is hard to achieve and higher levels of anxiety are created (taken from chapter 8).

Evaluation Interview

Evaluation interview, as the name suggests is basically an update taken from the therapist on the potential progress that has been made by the individual in question and his family since therapy had begun. This process is completed to not only underline the positive but also the negative and the shortcomings that still exist despite the use therapy theories (taken from chapter 8).

Genogram

Genogram are used primarily for identifying family origin; measure self-differentiation; determine patterns of triangle and behavior. This helps family in fulfilling primary objective of therapy i.e. de-triangulation and differentiating. Third and even fourth generation can also use the family map of Genogram (taken from chapter 8).

Therapeutic goals

The therapeutic goals that can thus be achieved include: identification of behavioral patterns; emotional structures of the nuclear families are recognized; family history is understood as well (taken from chapter 8).

Contextual therapy

The primary aspect that plays an integral part in contextual therapy includes the focus on the rational ethics structures whereby justice is attained in the long run through the use of logical thinking as opposed to emotional reasoning. In contextual therapy, the focus is on the analysis of prior family interactions used as the basis to form decisions on the therapeutic theories used thereof (taken from chapter 8).

Psycho-educational model

Family psycho-education has different models. The models have similar elements, but may be categorized as: single and multiple family groups; mixed groups, which are comprised of patients (consumers) and family members; groups according to the duration required (9months-5years); and groups that works phase by phase for treating patient's illness (taken from chapter 16).

Family and mental disorders

Family and mental disorders can disrupt an entire structure of the family and hinder any and all progress made. Family and mental disorders like grief, chronic depression or sorrow, relapse and remission of an individual and the emotional distress caused thereof, the challenges of a day-to-day life are all examples of things that the families have to deal with consistently (taken from chapter 16).

Expressed Emotion and Schizophrenia

While, the medical cause of schizophrenia elude the professionals, many therapist have linked how the expression of familial and peer emotion can elevate or decrease the symptoms. The theory of expressed emotion thereof is designed to analyze how the schizophrenic can be extremely responsive towards the expression of a negative or positive emotion of a family member or friend. The level of responsiveness is directly proportional to the level of closeness between the ill individual and the particular family member/friend. It is also viewed as the most reliable element for indicating relapse of schizophrenics (taken from chapter 16).

Therapeutic Process

According to various research evidences, single-family psycho-education group is not better in terms of results when compared with multi-family groups dealing with schizophrenic children or family members, as this involves working closely with numerous individual traits of families and patients. In the late 1950s and early 1960s, multiple-family group therapy was initiated, and their first task was to look at the psychiatric hospital's ward-management problems and solve them. During 9 months program, participants were able to learn techniques useful in solving problems mutually; dealing with crisis intervention strategies; how to interact with a mentally ill person; side effects involved in medication; and treatment and symptoms of mental illness (taken from chapter 16).

Leading Figures

Some of the leading figures in this domain include: George Engel, John Rolland, Thomas Campbell, Susan McDaniel, William Doherty, MacAran Baird, amongst others (taken from chapter 16).

Chapter 3: Cultural Considerations

The ever increasing observed impact on culture and other facets of the environment have also been noticed on the therapy process and this impact is one of the most significant recent developments in the field of therapy (Ingraham, 2000, 2003 as cited in Holcomb-McCoy and Bryan, 2010; Pinto, 1981 as cited in Holcomb-McCoy and Bryan, 2010; Tarver-Behring & Ingraham, 1998 as cited in Holcomb-McCoy and Bryan, 2010). Indeed, when parents from a culturally varied background are part of the therapy process, therapists need to take into account the influence of culture on the process, along with its influence on the client (Moseley- Howard, 1995 as cited in Holcomb-McCoy and Bryan, 2010).

In one of Gibbs (1980)'s article, addressing multicultural therapies, she emphasized on the variation of the process between European-American and African-American subjects. She discovered that the European-American teachers paid more attention and raised relevant questions about the objectives of the initiative while African-American teachers did not respond much and depicted little concern for the process, initially. Thus it was concluded by Gibbs, that the latter group be made accustomed to an interpersonal style while the European-American teachers be exposed to the instrument therapy style which was task-led. Later, Duncan and Pryzwansky (1993) contradicted the research and discovered that the African-American teachers wanted the instrumental style (as cited in Holcomb-McCoy and Bryan, 2010).

Often, parents might consider cultural variations the problem themselves as Sheridan (2000; as cited in Henderson et al., 2007) puts forth that the factors such as class, race and religion are sometimes considered to be the origin of the child's issues. According to Davies (1993; as cited in Henderson et al., 2007), families who were poor and uneducated did not want to make an effort to assist their children in their school related problems… [END OF PREVIEW]

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