Psychodynamic Theory, Learning Research Paper

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SAMPLE EXCERPT . . .
These aspects of learning theory provide valuable insights into how and why adults best learn in the workplace, including group members assigned new tasks (Kenner & Wienerman, 2011).

Social Exchange Theory

Propounded by Homans (1961), social exchange theory is based on the notion that, "Social exchange occurs when one is attracted to another in expectation of reward due to that association. Individuals' social exchanges are anchored in self-interest and characterized by interdependency, the terms of which may be defined by psychological contract" (Turnipseed & Wilson, 2009, p. 201). These types of dyadic exchanges typically involve some type of reward that allows group members to work better (Turnipseed & Wilson, 2009). Social exchange theory has been used by human resource practitioners to improve employee performance, enhance productivity in the workplace, improve service quality, improve employee job satisfaction, reduce absenteeism as well as overall turnover rates (Sheng & Tian, 2010). According to Sheng and Tian (2010), "Not all groups are successful, though, because arrangements of the individuals' cooperation in the work may not be satisfactory and the members should be allowed to select other group members" (p. 1298).

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Research Paper on Psychodynamic Theory, Learning Theory, and Assignment

Psychodynamic theory can be used by a group leader as well as all group members to help them better understand the group dynamics that are facilitating teamwork or hindering it; group members can also use psychodynamic theory to step back and develop a more nuanced and objective perspective of the group so that what is really taking place can be discerned rather than trying to force everyone's actions into a theoretical pigeonhole. Likewise, learning theory can be drawn on to better understand why people behave the way they do in working learning situations, and social exchange theory is readily applied to group situations where It is also important to note that many groups will be comprised of members from different background and cultures, making the need for cross-cultural understanding and appreciation an ongoing requirement for effective group functioning (Henslin, 2013).

Conclusion

The research showed that organizational behavior has become the focus of a growing body of research, and practitioners in this field routinely draw on various theoretical perspectives to help them perform their jobs better. The more prevalent theories in this area include psychodynamic theory, first propounded by Sigmund Freud in the early 20th century but expanded and built upon by countless practitioners since that time, and learning theory formulated by Knowles which highlights the fundamental differences that exists in adult learning situations in the workplace. Finally, social exchange theory as articulated by Homans can be used to help group members obtain the tools and resources they need in a reciprocal fashion that can help them achieve their group's goals more effectively.

References

Henslin, J. (2013). Sociology: A down-to-earth approach. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

Homans, G.C. (1961). Social behaviour: Its elementary, forms. London: Routledge & Kegan

Paul.

Kenner, C. & Weinerman, J. (2011, Spring). Adult learning theory: Applications to non-

traditional college students. Journal of College Reading and Learning, 41(2), 87-91.

Knowles, M.S. (1974). Human resources development in OD. Public Administration Re view,

34(2), 115-123.

Knowles, M.S. (1984). Andragogy in action. San Francisco, CA: Josey-Bass Publishers in Kenner (2011), p. 88.

Lanza, M.L. (1998, January-March). A multidisciplinary course to teach staff to conduct psychodynamic group psychotherapy for assaultive men. Perspectives in Psychiatric

Care, 34(1), 28-36.

Osipow, S.H. & Walsh, W.B. (1999). Career counseling: Contemporary topics in vocational psychology. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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