Essay: Psychological Concepts. In Some Questions

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[. . .] Hence it can be concluded that it is up to Beth use operant conditioning to not make any friends or to increase her number of friends.

Answer 5:

Retroactive Interference is when new information learned makes it difficult to recall information stored earlier. The public park picture was shown first to the participants and they stored whatever they could from the picture. Immediately after that, they were shown several other pictures thus, they had to store new information. This bombarding of new information into the storing system of the brain makes it difficult for the participants to recall what they saw first in the public park picture. The result was that most of them mistook the man to be the oppressor and not the woman.

Representative heuristic is when we use particular prototypes to form conclusions about a phenomena or thing. Representative heuristics use intuition rather than careful reasoning. The answers derived from representative heuristic are mostly gut-feelings. In this situation the participants were shown the picture. The participants, instead of memorizing minute details, might have stored the summary of the picture. When they were told to recall what they saw they immediately replied that the male was the oppressor. This is because of the stereotyping of men being oppressive and aggressive. Many men shout at their wives and their partners. This stereotypical behavior of men made the participants judge the picture through intuition; the male was the one shouting at the female.

Confirmation bias is when we seek proof to justify our arguments rather than seek proof to negate our arguments. This happens most of the time. In the case of the public park picture the participants wanted to believe that the man was the oppressor. Therefore, they did not consider evidence which negated their assumption. This way they said that the man was the aggressor not the female.

Framing is all about how we present an issue. The information presented remains the same but the way it is presented changes; positively or negatively. The concept of framing does not apply accurately over here. In the public park incident it depends on the person who presented the picture. The result states that the presenter might have asked 'was it the male who was the oppressor?' Therefore, the situation was framed by the presenter in such a way that only the negative information about the male was provided.

Answer 6:

According to many researchers, behavior is supposed to vary with different levels of arousal. In this case when the students hear that grades will no longer be considered they would definitely be aroused and their levels of brain activity would change. Most of the students would become anxious and do things that are deviant. They would then resort to deviant activities and other unethical practices because they know that grades will now not be judging factors. They would do everything to show progress, may be by dominating, and may be by bullying. Therefore, the student might want to show progress in every way other than studying. They might also not want to show progress as studying is no longer required. The students would then be off the leash and free to do anything they like on campus or off the campus. They would not have to worry about studies anymore so they will resort to deviant activities. According to the arousal theory, the behavior of students would definitely change negatively. They would know that grades don't matter and they would be free to do anything they like.

According to the James-Lange theory first a specific physiological response occurs and then after observing that response, we form experienced emotions. Therefore, according to James, certain emotions are triggered by specific actions. Basically the students would form different emotions when they are aroused. However, arousal is a must for forming emotions according to James-Lange theory. The students would be physically aroused when they would hear that they would not be judged on studies. Therefore, if we are jumping with joy then we would feel happy with our selves and content with the grading system.

Answer 7:

There are two options when we are affronted by stress; fight or flight. Flight is when we tend to flee from the stressful situation or when we try to get away from any situation that causes stress. In the fight situation we actually try to solve the problem of our stress and tend to fight back. We do not run away from the situation but we stay back and try to fight away the stress. These are the two responses to stress.

In times of catastrophe, the depression and anxiety levels rise on average. This was monitored by researchers who researched on individuals after the 9/11 attack. The research suggested that depression and anxiety increased after 9/11 and people also found it difficult to sleep and to concentrate.

This theory can be applied to the incoming freshmen as well. The freshmen should be briefed that they can face any circumstance. The pamphlet should also include details about the diseases that can be caused by excessive stress like cancer and coronary heart diseases. The fight and flight situation can be put into practice here. The students should be briefed that if they face a situation where they feel stressful then they should either flee from the situation or face it. Fleeing or fighting a problem depends on the problem itself. The students should be briefed that they should not try to face problems that they cannot handle alone. They should take help. If they face a problem that they can tackle alone then they should fight it.

General adaption syndrome talks about three phases when a human faces stress, alarm, resistance and exhaustion. Therefore these things should also be taught to the students.

Emotion focused coping is when we ignore the stressor and tend to other emotional needs we have. Back pain is a stress related psycho physiological disorder. When we go through back pain caused by stress we tend to ignore it and try to cater to our emotional needs.

In problem focused coping we can take care of the back pain by dealing with the back pain directly. We might go to the doctor and get treatment.

In biopsychosocial approach we tend to alleviate the social, emotional and physical problem attached with back pain. When all of these problems are attended to at the same time, biopsychosocial approach is said to be practiced

Answer 8:

According to the psychodynamic perspective anxiety is caused by hidden emotions that reveal themselves in the form of certain drives. For example a boy is without a girlfriend in the western culture. He watches his peers with partners. He knows they love each other and also tend to their physical as well as emotional need. However, this particular boy does not have a girlfriend. Therefore, the boy might be a patient of anxiety. The boy might feel deprived and his inner drives will reveal themselves. According to this perspective the boy should be counseled and he should also be given anti-depressants if the case is very severe.

The biological perspective talks about dealing with anxiety by diagnosing physical and biological problems. The boy I discussed might be addicted to sex or he might also be having a hormonal imbalance which wants him to crave for a girlfriend excessively. Therefore a psychologist following the biological perspective will deal with physical problems that might be causing anxiety like back pain, over working etc.

Cognitive approach will tend to alleviate anxiety by letting the patient gain conscious control over their mental stress inducing processes. Anxiety can be caused in children when they interpret different situations of the world. Their interpretations are based on the information they have stored and the interpretations can be completely wrong. However, the children cannot help it because they come to conclusions by using their own knowledge and information. According to this perspective we should treat the root cause of anxiety; emotions and data stored in the brain. Proper counseling would again be required and if necessary drugs would be given to patients in bad condition. However, counseling should be the main treatment. Therapy sessions should be planned with the patient and a proper psychologist should cater to the patient. The psychologist should try to uncover the emotional reasons that are causing anxiety. Once the causes are identified, then the negative and wrong beliefs of the patients should be corrected that are causing anxiety.

Answer 9:

When our actions and attitudes don't coincide we feel tension or Cognitive dissonance. Therefore according to the cognitive dissonance theory we bring our attitude in line with our actions. I bought a bicycle once. It was not very expensive and had all the good qualities I needed. It was of my favorite color that was blue. I liked my bicycle a lot and was proud of the decision to purchase it. However, after I had the bicycle with me for 3 months I… [END OF PREVIEW]

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