Term Paper: Psychology Briefly Describe the Differences Among Positive

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Briefly describe the differences among positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, and punishment. Give examples of how each might be used to influence behavior.

Positive reinforcement refers to a reward given for behavior that is desirable. For example, if a dog performs a trick on command the owner might offer a cookie. Parents might offer positive reinforcement for their kids' good grades by raising their allowance or taking them out to dinner. Negative reinforcement involves behavioral training using aversion techniques, used also to encourage a desirable behavior. For example, the parents refused to give their kids any allowance money unless they brought home good grades, or made the child do the dishes every day until they brought home an "A." Punishment, on the other hand, refers to behavioral conditioning using a negative stimulus in order to discourage undesirable behavior. For example, if a child comes home with an "F" on his or her report card the parents might punish him or her by grounding or withholding allowance money.

2. With regard to needs, how do men and women different in needs for affiliation and power?

Some research shows that men and women differ in terms of their needs for affiliation and power. It is possible that men need to feel more powerful and therefore seek positions of power and control, while women need more to be affiliated with power. Some women are attracted to men who are powerful. This may be due to evolutionary needs.

3. Briefly describe what is meant by nature vs. nurture debate in psychology. Discuss what position most developmental psychologists take on this debate and give an example of a developmental process… [END OF PREVIEW]

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