Essay: Psychology

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[. . .] Both positive and cognitive psychology uses the scientific technique to clarify the association that is among reasoning and behavior. Meanwhile positive psychology could couple with any other methods, cognitive psychology has lived without argument for practically four periods (Sweetland, 2009). In the 21st century, progress and technology go hand-in-hand; as a result, the formation of artificial intelligence will probable outcome in new theories concerning thought.

Theories of Psychology

There are a lot of theories in psychology that are examined for instance the theories of Gestalt psychology where he says "Humans are psychologically troubled and frequently intensely distressed by inequity, disorder, disorder, tension and battles…We are contented merely when we feel in symmetry, that is, control and in balanced." (Barnes, 2008) These two statements label the undeveloped basics for Gestalt psychology. Gestalt psychology uses the brain's tendency to pursue a whole in order to comprehend its parts. Place simply, the insight of the whole is better than the sum of its machineries (Jenkins, 2011). The Gestalt evidence is a number of values or 'laws' connected to the society of visual fields. These values change the spectator's 'default' view or prospects and endorse a more creative clarification or awareness of an appearance.

Behavior theory is another one that is documented in psychology. The Behavior Theory is the rudimentary idea that behavior that is satisfied will increase and behavior that is chastised will reduction (Campbell, 2007) it is a basic idea that each person's behavior is predisposed by their environment otherwise. Behavior Theory applied to corruption allows for a deeper understanding of why crime may be more predominant in sure parts or by assured peer groups (Sweetland, 2009).

The Behavior theory speaks to the idea that environmental issues are a direct effect on a person's choices (Clement, 2008) The behavior theory makes the point that when a particular action outcomes in a reward then that behavior will remain (Sweetland, 2009) Behavior theory likewise mentions that when behavior or action outcomes in a chastisement that particular behavior will likely shrink (Schmalleger 2009).

Freud's psychoanalytic theory

As stated by Sigmund Freud, humans consist of drives and impulses. These instincts are frequently buried deep within people and many times they are not even aware that they exist, particularly in children that are under the age of six years old. He invented the term libido, which comprise all the life energy of an individual. Libido comprises the drive that turns people into the individuals that they are is a source of motivation. People at times descend in the direction of desires and evade pain. To that end, the character of an individual is separated into three main portions and they are ego, id, and superego (Hess, 2005).

The ID is considered to be the first portion of personality to mature. It is absorbed on the wants and needs of an individual. It does not care about penalties, goals at attaining preferences, evade pain, is not balanced, and is present from delivery. The ego is the contrary of id, which emphases on justice and morality. It is the ruling share of the personality, uses intelligence to improve order that is within a situation, it works as the reality belief, and understands the world as it should be. The superego is considered to be the bridge that tempers the ego and the id.

Freud observed the mind as an assortment of two main portions. The first part is cognizant, which is the part of the mind that most people are aware of. It has a lot to do with the thoughts and feeling the people have, it is the tiniest share of the mind as the drives and instincts which drives people frequently happens on a level lower than aware. The second part and the main part of the mind are unconscious, comprise of impulses, want and is the essential of an individual. When the ego is stunned, it progresses into defense devices. Some of the usual defense devices that people use are the following:

1. Repression -- refuting admission to excruciating memories from awareness.

2. Denial -- concentrating attention away from an issue.

3. Reaction formation -- reply in the conflicting manor

4. Projection -- Anticipated to others

5. Displacement -- aim the hostility to another cause.

6. Rationalization -- clarifying motive to the occurrence

7. Sublimation -- directed in a manner that is suitable to society

8. Regression -- return to a previous time of less stress.

9. Introjection -- classify with those providing the pressure as the method of stress release

10. Identification -- the determination to line an organization to feel valuable

11. Compensation -- highpoints fruitful feature of personality

Diversity Issues in Psychology

Diversity is known to come in various different forms. It is tremendously significant that counselors, psychologists, and therapists not merely grow the skills to effectively treat and measure individuals, nonetheless they must also appreciate their attitudes and values related to the facades of variety: socio-economic status, age, religion, culture, sexual orientation, civilization, spirituality, and aptitude. First and primary, the customer's sense of haven and well-being must continue an importance. Mental health treatment is mainly reliant on upon the psychologist's ability to knowledge manage the customer's care and treatment association ethically and effectively.

Because of the increase in multicultural inhabitants, psychologists will repeatedly have to cooperate with nationalities that may be culturally and racially dissimilar. Asian populations Hispanic and are estimated to triple by the 2050 (Hess, 2005). Numerous minority cultures and adolescences do not have admission to or passable mental health services because of communication limits, clinician prejudice, or other barricades that will further detach them from any treatment procedure and further dishearten said services.

Inside diversity is capability and accountability. No mental health care facilities will need to be recognized until the psychologist have the proper type training, continuing education, and information with the accepting of the surfaces talked about beforehand (Campbell, 2007). Diversity-based psychology is something that will not only better serve the community and deliver better treatment selections, nevertheless permit the psychologist to have more actual exercise and become progressively more accommodating. Psychologists in the past were resulting from the White values and were partial in being able to help those that were from other races. They would have to treat everyone the same and that was clearly not possible. Some experts have been saying that Psychology will have to break away from being a one-dimensional science, that it must identify the multilayered coatings of existence (Campbell, 2007)

In conclusion, it is clear that the field of psychology has many avenues. However, all of these different avenues are what make up psychology. From the early history with Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle all the way to modernism, the field of psychology has grown and become more developed as far as how it is applied to everyday life.

References

Barnes, D. "Foreword to featured special topic: Philosophical and conceptual issues in behavioral psychology." The Psychological Record 23.8 (2008): 34-56.

Beal, A.L. "Contemporary intellectual assessment, theories, tests and issues, second edition." Canadian Psychology, 47.1 (2009): 70-71.

Block, N. "Consciousness, accessibility, and the mesh between psychology and neuroscience." Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 23.7 (2007): 499-548.

Campbell, J. "The american philosophical association and its history." Transactions of the Charles S.Peirce Society 43.2 (2007): 404-410.

Clement, U., & L, N.S. "Subjective HIV attribution theories, coping and psychological functioning among homosexual men with HIV." AIDS Care 12.7 (2008): 355-63.

Hess, J.Z. "Scientists in the swamp: Narrowing the language-practice gap in community psychology." American Journal of Community Psychology, 15.4 (2005): 239-52.

Jenkins, P. "Attention is cognitive unison: An essay in philosophical psychology." Choice, 49.4 (2011): 692-692.

MOJTABAI, R. "Measuring the mind: Conceptual issues in contemporary psychometrics." Psychological Medicine 11.4 (2006):… [END OF PREVIEW]

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