Psychology Explain the Similarities and Differences Essay

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Psychology

Explain the similarities and differences between classical conditioning and operant conditioning. Give an example of each type of learning.

Classical conditioning is refers to the process of learning that was engaged in by Pavlov in his well-known experiments involving dogs and their salivation. Within Pavlov's experiment the dogs were given food and the quantum of their saliva measured. Subsequently, a bell was rung before the dogs were given the food. In the initial ringing there was no salivation but after a while the sound of the ringing bell prompted the dogs to salivate. The dogs began to associate the sound of the bell ringing with food. For all practical purposes physiological, the sound of the bell was as good as food itself. Classical conditioning can be used to condition autonomic responses, and to develop association between specific stimuli and responses. Therefore, for classical conditioning the stimulus acquires the ability to create a response that was the function of another stimulus.

In operant conditioning, unlike classical conditioning which forms an association between two different stimuli. Operant conditioning creates connections between behavior and consequences of that behavior. Operant is also known as response-stimulus conditioning. In operant conditioning, the consequences should be directly linked to the specific behavior. So that you may suggest that, you will give a child a gift if they clean their room or finish some specific chore. The other side of the coin is also possible where instead of positive results the persons receives negative results for behavior that you do not wish to continue.

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Thus, the major difference between operant and classical conditioning is the role of stimuli. In classical conditioning, two stimuli are involved where one replaces the other. In operant conditioning, stimuli are used to reinforce desired behavior or to discourage behavior that is undesirable.

Question 2:

Explain how memories are retrieved, including both context-dependent and state-dependent memories. Describe how memory retrieval can be disrupted

TOPIC: Essay on Psychology Explain the Similarities and Differences Between Assignment

Answer: The storage of information with the brain involves the encoding and chemical storage of information. Having stored information to be useful to the actor the information must be retrieved in a usable manner. Memory retrieval is a critical component of living without this aspect life would be practically unlivable.

Memory retrieval requires several actions to occur, firstly, recall, this feature allows for the accessing of information within the memory without cues. Then there is recollection, which involves the recreation of events and experiences using logical structures and other indicators. Another feature is recognition, where information is identified after you have engaged similar experiences. Finally, relearning which as it implies is strengthening information that was previously learnt. This makes it easier to recover information and allows it to remain in the memory much longer.

Context-dependent memory relates to the improvement of the recall of particular events when the same context exists for the retrieval and encoding of the information. This often occurs as individuals attempt to find items they may have lost. In the search they arrive at a place that "jogs" the memory. This jogging of the memory occurs when the context for the encoding of where the item was lost and the attempts at retrieval are in unison. Thus when you arrive at where the item was lost you know it is that place.

State dependent memory is the ability to recall information only when a specific mental state is present. Therefore, learning and the recall of information will be linked to the physiological and mental condition of the organism. Persons who can only recall specific kinds on information when the condition is induced by drug use may demonstrate state dependent memory.

Question 3: Describe the first three stages in language development. Explain the achievements and problems encountered at each stage.

Answer: The development of language skills is a delight for any parent who is awaiting their child's first words. Parents may be anxious that the child is not speaking as fluently or as frequently as the parent believes is necessary. A knowledge of the stages of language development could be an asset to many parents and reducing the anxiety associated with… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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