Psychology of Gender Research Paper

Pages: 10 (2497 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 10  ·  Level: College Junior  ·  Topic: Sports - Women  ·  Buy This Paper

SAMPLE EXCERPT:

[. . .] In doing so, it forced these self-doubting men to increase their efficiency and productivity in the office as a means of keeping their job (that is, not losing it to a woman).

Though while lower-ranking male employees have felt an ongoing sense of apprehension and concern over the increasing power and influence of women in business, the male leaders of the corporate world have maintained the financial superiority to women. As women have worked their way up the corporate ladder in the last few decades, it almost seems like the aforementioned cycle of discriminatory pay practices has begun once again. In fact, as recently as 2004 it was determined that women in high-ranking corporate positions earn approximately 80% of the salaries earned by their male peers on average . However, as salaries grow and executive positions become more coveted, powerful and influential, this gender pay gap seems to widen:

As illustrated, the more esteemed the position, the greater the wage gap is based upon gender. Nevertheless, the number of women occupying these prestigious job roles continues to rise . In fact, "the number of women running Fortune 500 companies in 2000 was three, whereas in 2009, 15 women CEOs ended the year at the helm of Fortune 500 companies." Thus, obviously, women have found their way into some of the world's top companies in the last decade. Companies, like PepsiCo, Xerox, Avon, eBay, Lucent Technologies and The New York Times have all had women occupying leadership roles over the last ten years . Therefore, while women have certainly leveled the employment playing field with their male constituents, there is still a ways to go in the payroll department.

While all of the data presented above surely elucidates the fact that males regularly occupy the role of aggressors towards women in the workplace, there are large demographics of men that have also struggled with discrimination during their journeys to transcend gender specific job frameworks in the working world. That is, when men attempt to occupy positions that have been traditionally defined as "women's jobs," they often find themselves having to defend their masculinity . The subsequent defensive behavior usually results in a great deal of distance being created between these men and their female coworkers in an attempt to maintain their conventional masculinity . However, there have been many cases in which men in these job roles redefine their masculinity in a way that lets them embrace their new coworkers and non-traditional occupational roles . In any case, even though this demographic of men is far smaller than the number of women who have experienced this kind of deplorable treatment in the workplace, such cases do provide proof that both genders do suffer at the hands of discrimination in the working environment. Nevertheless, as this problem persists, it does create the potential for new channels of intersex communication and interaction in the working world, which can certainly help future generations in dealing with this delicate scenario.

Ultimately, it seems like women and men will continue to interact with one another in the workplace for many years to come. With the education and participation rates of women increasing at a rapid pace, this influential demographic of laborers will surely bolster its influence in the professional world in the very near future. While the older and more discriminatory generations will soon find their way into retirement, younger and more progressive generations should hope to shed the prejudicial tendencies and realize the massive appeal and untapped potential that women bring to the table. Noting the many monumental changes that have occurred in the gender composition of the working world over the last century, inter-gender relationships have certainly struggled and matured. The chronological metamorphosis of these interactive associations provides a unique perspective on the changing attitudes and occupational trends that have influenced the world's collective labor force. This helpful depiction of revolution and transformation can also help to determine more accurate projections and objectives for solidarity in future generations. As the female population has suffered through many centuries of oppression and discrimination, this resilient group of survivors has evolved into a highly qualified group of innovative minds and valuable corporate assets.

Bibliography

Adams, S.M., Gupta, A., Haughton, D.M., & Leeth, J.D. (2007). Gender Differences in CEO Compensation: Evidence from the U.S.A. Gender in Management: An International Journal, 22 (3), 208-224.

Altbach, P.G., Reisberg, L., & Rumbley, L.E. (2009). Trends in Global Higher Education: Tracking an Academic Revolution. UNESCO 2009 World Conference on Higher Education. Paris, France.

Blau, F.D., & Kahn, L.M. (2000). Gender Differences in Pay. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 14 (4), 75-99.

Bowling, N.A., & Beehr, T.A. (2006). Workplace Harassment from the Victim's Perspective. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91 (5), 998-1012.

Burns, N., Schlozman, K.L., & Verba, S. (2001). The Private Roots of Public Action: Gender, Equality, and Political Participation. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Croson, R., & Gneezy, U. (2009). Gender Differences in Preferences. Journal of Economic Literature, 47 (2), 448-474.

Cross, S., & Bagilhole, B. (2002). Girls' Jobs for the Boys? Men, Masculinity and Non-Traditional Occupations. The Journal of Gender, Work & Organization, 9 (2), 204 -- 226.

Hallock, M.B. (2001). The Gender Gap in Top Corporate Jobs. Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 55 (1), 3-21.

Inglehart, R., & Norris, P. (2003). Rising Tide: Gender Equality and Cultural Change Around the World. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.

Inglehart, R., Norris, P., & Welzel, C. (2002). Gender Equality and Democracy. The Journal of Corporate Sociology, 1 (3-4), 321-345.

Johnson, J.A. (1975). Equal Pay Act of 1963: A Practical Analysis. The Drake University Law Review, 24 (57).

LeGates, M. (2001). In Their Time: A History of Feminism in Western Society. New York, NY: Routledge Publishers.

McLean, C. (2007, September). Highlights of the 2007 GuideStar Compensation Report. Retrieved September 27, 2011, from http://www2.guidestar.org/rxa/news/articles/2007/highlights-of-the-2007-guidestar-nonprofit-compensation-report.aspx?articleId=1162

Nicholas, S., & Oxley, D. (2008). The Living Standards of… [END OF PREVIEW]

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