Psychology Identify Essay

Pages: 2 (948 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: ≈ 6  ·  File: .docx  ·  Topic: Psychology

Psychology

Identify and describe the four main theories of motivation. Explain arguments against three of the theories.

Motivation pushes human beings to achieve goals and fulfill tasks. Four of the more important theories are: the theory of the hierarchy of needs, the two factors theory, the incentive theory and the self-determination theory.

The theory of hierarchy of needs is when individuals are motivated to perform various actions in a particular order. This based upon their survival being the most important. To accomplish this, they have to fulfill the needs in the lower categories to include: biological, safety, affection / love, esteem and self-actualization. (Cherry, 2011)

The two factors theory holds that two constant elements (hygiene and motivators), will have an impact upon individual behavior. If hygiene factors are absent, dissatisfaction will occur. This is because various elements such as: conditions and interpersonal relationships will be affected. Motivators provide an incentive to improve the environment, by giving an individual a number of reasons to engage in positive actions that will benefit the organization / themselves. (Murphy, 1996) This is important, because the two principals are outlining some of the basics everyone will require to be successful. An argument against this theory is that, these factors are addressing some of the underlying needs. Yet, they are not specifically saying how you can continually challenge people.

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Under the incentive theory, a reward should be given after a positive trait or behavior occurs. The idea is to create favorable views about particular actions, by giving someone positive re-enforcement. At which point, they will associate the anticipation of a reward with certain actions and behaviors. An argument against this theory is that the above techniques can be difficult to execute. ("Incentive Theory," n.d.)

TOPIC: Essay on Psychology Identify and Describe the Four Main Assignment

The self-determination theory is when you are looking at a person's growth and various psychological needs based upon external influences. The idea is that by examining these different elements, you can be able to fully understand how the environment could have an impact upon behavior. According to Deci and Ryan, "The primary factors that encourage motivation and development are autonomy, competence feedback along with relatedness." (Deci & Ryan, 1985) an argument against this theory is that it is not looking at: specific genetic factors and the role that it could play on someone's personality.

Identify and describe the five stages of Freud's theory of personality development. Describe the psychological problems that may arise during the first three stages.

The five stages of Freud's theory of personality development are: oral / dependency, anal, phallic, latency and genital. Oral / dependency, takes place from birth to the age of two years old. During this stage, an infant explores the environment using their mouth. If their needs remain unsatisfied, the individual will exhibit them later on life (such as: overeating, smoking or drinking).The anal stage is when the child… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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