Psychology of Sport Exercise Conroy Capstone Project

Pages: 4 (1179 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 1  ·  File: .docx  ·  Level: College Senior  ·  Topic: Sports


The intended audience is primarily individuals responsible for coach training programs. Yet, the data was collected from the athletes, and apparently no data was collected from coaches with regard to their own perceptions or observations about their use of coaching strategies. Particularly of note is the absence of self-assessment by coaches of any differentiated treatment or interactions based on the gender or ages of the young athletes. Analysis of the relation between coaching styles and gender was not identified as an important variable in the initial approach to the study. The age range of the participants is wide, and calls to question whether different strategies might have different impact on the youth athletes depending on their age, as well as their gender. Moreover, this study -- and many others related to this research topic -- are conducted during sports practice and not during actual competitions. The authors suggest that a different set of dynamics may prevail when competitiveness is emphasized.

Discussion of Hypotheses: The hypotheses proposed for this research include the following: Hypothesis 1: Autonomy-supportive coaching style is more effective for female than male athletes in team sports; and Hypothesis 2: Controlling coaching style is more effective for male than female athletes in team sports. For both hypotheses, the independent variable is gender (nominal data) and the dependent variable is the effectiveness of autonomy-supportive coaching style (ordinal data).Download full Download Microsoft Word File
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TOPIC: Capstone Project on Psychology of Sport Exercise Conroy, Assignment

Methods: Data analysis of the responses to the ASCQ was conducted for three models using confirmatory factor analysis with full-information maximum likelihood parameter estimates. The models tested were: 1) Uni-dimensional -- all items loaded on the single factor that represented autonomy-supportive coaching; 2) two uncorrelated factors that represented coaches' interest in athlete's input and praise for autonomous behavior; and 3) two correlated factors that represented coaches' interest in athlete's input and praise for autonomous behavior. The one item-factor regression coefficient on each factor was set at 1.0 for the purpose of establishing a metric, and every item was set to load on a specific factor. To analyze the relations between the ASCQ scores and the perceived coaching behaviors and need satisfaction, hierarchical multiple regression were used. As some collinearity between the predictors in each of the models was expected when interpreting the parameter estimates, greater emphasis was placed on the structure coefficients than on the standardized regression coefficients.

Results: The results of the confirmatory factor analysis suggest that youth athletes were able to differentiate strategies used by coaches to support autonomy. Moreover, these coaching strategies were strongly positively correlated. The two coaching strategies used to support autonomy in the young athletes were fundamentally supportive and affiliative in nature -- and were considered to be essentially non-controlling coaching behaviors. However, one substantive distinction emerged: No association was found between coaches' interest in the input by the young athletes and perceived blame and punitive control; however, a negative association was found between coaches' praise for autonomous behavior and perceived blame and punitive control.

Learnings and Application: The results indicate that young athletes were better able to distinguish coaching behaviors associated with the praise strategy than with the demonstrating interest strategy. The authors suggest that collecting data on the coaches' intransitive (self-other) behaviors may elucidate ways for coaching interactions to better communicate a strategy based on demonstrating interest with respect to the input from the young athletes. In plain language, coaches may need coaching about how to best communicate with young athletes regarding their opinions and perceptions… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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How to Cite "Psychology of Sport Exercise Conroy" Capstone Project in a Bibliography:

APA Style

Psychology of Sport Exercise Conroy.  (2014, February 4).  Retrieved July 28, 2021, from

MLA Format

"Psychology of Sport Exercise Conroy."  4 February 2014.  Web.  28 July 2021. <>.

Chicago Style

"Psychology of Sport Exercise Conroy."  February 4, 2014.  Accessed July 28, 2021.