Case Study: Psychotherapeutic Case Formulation Salomon

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[. . .] ii. Metacognitive Strategy

Salomon should receive evidence-based intervention (Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA, 2010, p. 2). That would include solo therapy sessions with Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy with the ABCDE method, in which the therapist teaches the client that external events are not causing his emotional/psychological disturbances; rather, " 'A' actual external events automatically/habitually elicit 'B' beliefs and irrational thoughts (perceptions and interpretations of the external events) that entail 'C' consequent emotions that may be irrational (maladaptive, inappropriate, unrealistic), and that must be 'D' disputed, attacked, challenged so that 'E' effective rational thoughts (perceptions and interpretations of the external events) may take their place (Rosner, 2011, p. 83). As part of his treatment, Salomon should also: "Keep a daily log of problematic emotional states; for each occasion of a problematic emotional state, record the apparently activating external event; figure out the irrational beliefs/self-talk/thoughts that constituted the (mis)perception and (mis)interpretation of the actual activating external event; dispute the irrational beliefs/self-talk/thoughts; figure out more effective rational beliefs/self-talk / thoughts to replace the disputed irrational thoughts" (Rosner, 2011, pp. 83-84). In addition to solo treatments with Salomon: Salomon would also benefit from family treatment sessions, at least with Salomon's mother present, as this would have the most effective impact on his home environment; the therapist also arrange Salomon's participation in an in-school Rational Emotive Mental Health Program (Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA, 2010, p. 81).

The final step in assisting Salomon should be the development of an Individual Education Plan prepared by an interdisciplinary team including me. The U.S. Department of Justice has developed a series of 7 (realistically, 8) steps using "Consultation Theory" for the IEP's development: first, the student is recognized as a possible candidate for special education and complementary services; secondly, he/she is evaluated by the multi-disciplinary team; third, a team comprised of the student's parents and professionals, including but not limited to teachers and school administrators, reviews the evaluation results; fourth, the team determines whether the student requires special education and attendant services; fifth, a meeting between the student's parents and school staff is set; sixth, the initial IEP meeting occurs between appropriate school staff and the student's parents; sixth, another IEP meeting is held, this time including the student, and this collaborative team develops the IEP; seventh, the services mapped by the IEP are provided to the student; eighth, the IEP is re-evaluated and adjusted as required for every placement change, normally every year and certainly at least every three years. It is the collaboration of this support team, including the student, which is able to incorporate the student's knowledge, skills and interests into the IEP, including a comprehensive transitional program for the student's post-school life (National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities, 2010). Focusing on the transitional aspect of the IEP, each state has laws determining the minimum age at which a student's IEP must including transitional planning. This transitional planning is backed by IDEA of 2004, which determined areas that should be examined when determining the student's post-school life: post-secondary school, vocational school, employment, continuing education, services for adults with disabilities, independent living and participation in the community (Bullano, 2009).


Salomon is struggling with anxiety, depression, adjustment disorders and learning disabilities within an environment that has neglected him for far too long. At the age of 15, Salomon will ideally receive the solo counseling, family counseling, school counseling, remedial education and transitional planning to effectively assist him in dealing with his difficult circumstances. In fact, Salomon may prove to be a cautionary tale and model for his educators' administrators' and school psychologist's more enlightened treatment of students who exhibit problems at an earlier stage of their education.

Works Cited

American Academy of Child Adolescent Psychiatry. (2010). Comprehensive Psychiatric Evaluation . Retrieved February 14, 2012 from AACAP Web site:

Bullano, R.Z. (2009, September 17). Transition services prepare students for life beyond high school. Retrieved February 14, 2012 from Virginia Commonwealth University Web site:

Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA. (2010). Common psychosocial problems of school aged youth: Developmental variations, problems, disorders and perspectives for prevention and treatment. Los Angeles, CA: Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA.

Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA. (Summer, 2007). Addressing barriers to learning: Evidence-based practices in schools: Concerns about fit and implementation. School Mental Health Project/Center for Mental Health in Schools, 12(3), 1-12.

Dettmer, P., Thurston, L.P., & Dyck, N. (2005). Consultation, collaboration, and teamwork for students with special needs (5th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson/Allyn and Bacon.

Duncan, J., & Arntson, L. (2004). Children in crisis: Good practices in evaluating psychosocial programming. New York, NY: Save the Children Federation, Inc.

Kupper, L. (2000). My child's special needs: a guide to the individualized education program. Retrieved February 14, 2012 from U.S. Department of Education Web site:

Lewis-Fernandez, R., & Diaz, N. (Winter 2002). The cultural formulation: A method for assessing cultural factors affecting the clinical encounter. Psychiatric Quarterly, 73(4), 271-295.

National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities. (2010, September 24). Subpart D: evaluations, eligibility, IEPs, and placement. Retrieved February 14, 2012 from National Dissemination Center for Children With Disablities Web site:

National Resource Center on AD/HD. (2012, January 5). IDEA (the Individuals with disabilities education act). Retrieved February 14, 2012 from National Resource Center on AD/HD Web site:

Rosner, R. (2011). Albert Ellis' rational-emotive behavior therapy. Adolescent Psychiatry, 1(1), 82-87.

UBM Medica, LLC. (2010). Psychologist vs. neurologist testing. Retrieved February 14, 2012 from Healthier You Web site:

Weisz, J.R. (2004). Psychotherapy for children and adolescents: Evidence-based treatments and case examples. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Yeung, A.S., & Chang,… [END OF PREVIEW]

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