Research Paper: PTSD and TBI

Pages: 10 (2919 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 10  ·  Level: Doctorate  ·  Topic: Psychology  ·  Buy This Paper

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[. . .] This study utilized quantitative survey data to test a model of what causes alienation on campus among student veterans. We then present quotations from student veterans describing the types of situations they find alienating. The results have direct implications for how student affairs professionals may help veterans succeed in college." (2011: 279)

These insights are illustrating how there has been very little research conducted in these areas by anthropologists. This is because most data that is collected is based upon looking at specific sources vs. corroborating the result. When this occurs, it means that select areas have been addressed. While at the same time, others are being effectively ignored. In this case, Elliot provides a good starting point. However, she does not do anything to back up these ideas, other than provide a general outline of the problem by looking at a specific demographic. (2011: 279)

To corroborate these views, Sayer found that both PTSD and TBI are connected with each other. This is taking place with each one having unique variables which are having an impact on the ability of the individual to understand and address unique threats. This is because both are known to occur and compound the problem for many veterans. (2012: 405-419)

A good example of this can be seen with Sayer saying, "The post -- September 11, 2001 wars in and around Afghanistan and Iraq have increased awareness of traumatic brain injury (TBI), particularly blast-induced mild TBI. This article provides an overview of TBI and its neuropsychiatric sequel in U.S. war veterans who participated in the current operations in and around Afghanistan and Iraq, with particular emphasis on blast-related mild TBI. Psychiatric disorders, particularly posttraumatic stress disorder, pain, and sensory impairments are prevalent in war veterans with TBI. Research is needed to more definitively characterize the epidemiology of TBI-related functional difficulties, the effects of blasts compared with other mechanisms of injury, recovery trajectories, and treatment outcomes in this population." (2012: 405)

These insights are illustrating how the both conditions are known to be prevalent among Iraq War and Afghanistan veterans. This means that the individual could have even worse symptoms if they are left untreated. However, more research is necessary in order to understand what is taking place and address these issues over the long-term. (2012: 405)

As a result, the overview of the work performed by anthropologists is based upon looking at the long-term effects of both conditions. The problem is that no real studies have been completed to show how this will impact the individual. In most cases, the available evidence is demonstrating that the two are connected. Yet, very little research is completed to determine the causes and the lasting effects on stakeholders.

The Employment Situation, Current Salaries and Opportunities for Advancement

The current employment situation for most anthropologists is expected to remain very competitive. This is because the field is considered to be relatively small with opportunities for continuing growth. According statistics provided by the Bureau of Labor, they found that these amounts are expected to increase by 19% between 2014 and 2022. However, a total of 1,400 positions will be created. This means that despite the tremendous opportunities, there is still the possibility of the sector remaining very competitive. (Summary 2014)

The median salary is averaging is $57 thousand per year. In general, most individuals must have masters or PHD in this discipline. These insights are demonstrating how the field requires specialized training and skills. This is why demand is so high and the competition for available jobs is very tight. (Summary 2014)

Evidence of this can be seen with observations provided by the Bureau of Labor which says, "Anthropologists and archeologists study the origin, development, and behavior of humans. They examine the cultures, languages, archeological remains, and physical characteristics of people in various parts of the world. Although most anthropologists and archeologists work in an office, some analyze samples in laboratories or work in the field. They typically work in research organizations, colleges and universities, museums, consulting firms, private corporations, and government. Fieldwork in remote areas usually requires travel for extended periods. Anthropologists and archeologists need a master's degree or Ph.D. In anthropology or archeology. Experience doing anthropological or archeological fieldwork is also important. Bachelor's degree holders may find work as assistants or fieldworkers. The median annual wage for anthropologists and archeologists was $57,420 in May 2012. Employment of anthropologists and archeologists is projected to grow 19% from 2012 to 2022, faster than the average for all occupations. However, because it is a small occupation, the fast growth will result in only about 1,400 new jobs over the 10-year period. Jobseekers will likely face very strong competition." (Summary 2014)

These insights are showing how there is limited interest in the field for various opportunities. This is because of the specialized training. The result is that there is the opportunity for growth. However, the pool of labor is so small, that there is more competition for these positions. In this case, anthropologists require a higher salary and may or may not have to travel. (Summary 2014)

As far as the VA is concerned, this means going to different locations in order to understand the adverse effects on people. This entails seeing how both PTSD and TBI occur. Then, determining the way this will influence their capacity to understand and address these challenges in the future. This makes them in demand by the VA, to help understand how this influences their brain and the way these process information. In the future, these individuals can comprehend the scope of the problems and how these challenges are multiplied when someone is impacted by one or a combination of these conditions. (Summary 2014)

Bibliography of the most important books, chapters and articles.

2014. Summary. BLS. Electronic document, http://www.bls.gov/ooh/life-physical-and-social-science/anthropologists-and-archeologists.htm. accessed April 3, 2012

Driscoll Patricia

2010. Hidden Battles on Unseen Fronts. Drexel Hill: Casemate.

Elliot Marta

2011. U.S. Military Veterans Transition. Journal of Student Affairs Research 48 (3): 279

Golding Hiedi

2011. Potential Costs of Veterans. New York: Diane Publishing.

Jakupcak Matthew

2007. Anger, Hostility and Aggression. Journal of Traumatic Stress 20 (6): 945 -- 954.

Lew Henry

2009. Prevalence of Chronic Pain. Journal of Rehabilitation 46 (6): 697 -- 702.

Lawhorne Cheryl

2011. Combat Related Traumatic Brain Injury. Lanham: Government Institutes.

Katzenberg Anne

2010. Biological Anthropology. Hoboken: Wiley.

Nolan Riall

2013. A Handbook of Practicing Anthropology. Malden: Wiley Blackwell.

Sayer Nina

2012. Traumatic Brain Injury. Annual Review of Medicine 63: 405 -- 419.

List of relevant Journal Articles

Elliot Marta

2011. U.S. Military Veterans Transition. Journal of Student Affairs Research 48 (3): 279

Jakupcak Matthew

2007. Anger, Hostility and Aggression. Journal of Traumatic Stress 20 (6): 945 -- 954.

Lew Henry

2009. Prevalence of Chronic Pain. Journal of Rehabilitation 46 (6): 697 -- 702.

Sayer Nina

2012. Traumatic Brain Injury. Annual Review of Medicine 63: 405 -- 419.

Relevant professional organizations, ethics statements and newsletters.

The most relevant professional organizations include the VA and the American Association of Anthropologists. These entities help to determine the role of these individuals inside the VA and the different areas where they are studying. This improves their ability to objectively analyze what is happening by taking into account the issues impacting the individual and allowing them to become more focused on dealing with these issues in the longer term. (Katzenberg 2010)

Names / locations of PAs and others working in the content area locally and elsewhere

The various individuals who working in the field include: Marta Elliott (Duke University), Patricia Driscoll (the VA) and Anne Katzenberg (Harvard University). Each one of them offers unique insights about how PTSD and TSI are impacting veterans. All of them work throughout the U.S.

Relevant Laws and Regulations

The most relevant law is the Veterans Care Act of 1992. This expands preventive services and treatments for veterans. In this case, these insights are helpful in treating both conditions before they become worse. (Nolan 2013)

Relevant international / domestic organizations, private and public

Some of the different organizations include: the Healing Heroes Network, the Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans of America, the VA he American Association of Anthropologists. Nolan 2013)

Other helpful information you think about on your own.

Some other helpful information, is illustrating how the role of anthropologists is continuing to evolve. This is taking place with them helping to understand the Biological impacts of these diseases on veterans. In the future, this enables them to comprehend and address these challenges… [END OF PREVIEW]

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