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Public Safety and ChangeResearch Paper

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¶ … public agency known as National Health Service or NHS, is evolving with the aim of responding to the present and ongoing transformations in communities and human populations. Also to be examined are methods that other public safety agencies employ to prepare their employees to cope with these changes. The goal is to determine whether these methods can be applied to the NHS and to find out if they share certain similarities. Finally, the paper evaluates the effectiveness of the methods that the NHS uses.

The continuous rise in the levels of life expectancy has been one of the most remarkable success stories of the twentieth century. Both men and women have experienced increased longevity by more than a dozen years, a trend that is thought may predictably continue. In a host of areas such as cancer care and heart treatment units, there is a move to concentrate highly rapid, emergency services in a few units designated as 'super'. In the past, care for such cases was accessible in only thirty hospitals; however, there are eight new centers that specialize in diseases such as stroke (Triggle, 2012).

These units or centers discharge emergency services such as reducing long-term disabilities, dispensing clot-bursting drugs and providing CT scans to heart or stroke patients. It is believed that such specialist care helps to prevent about 400 deaths annually. The increasing number of aging or older citizens has its own attendant problems. Some serious conditions such as dementia and asthma, both illnesses associated with the elderly, may lead to the need for additional specialized care facilities, particularly with the increasing numbers of elderly people. This may create barriers to effectively providing support and care for patients with multiple conditions (Triggle, 2012).

Furthermore, the prospects of longevity among many people imply the need to build larger communities. Some are concerned this will lead to potential consequences of increased infections. Over the years, another area that NHS has focused on with a view to addressing and resolving healthcare problems is the spread of racial demographics. And therefore this paper will attempt to evaluate how NHS is preparing to deal with these problems. For instance, what measures has NHS put in place to help manage the changes occasioned by a population that lives longer in view of the health problems related to longevity? A comparative analysis of response mechanisms by other agencies will also be carried out in order to ascertain how they too respond to the health challenges brought by this new development in life expectancy.

The Literature Review

For people who do not have full time employment, selected local governments have subsidized nutrition and physical activity programs from the funds they get. However, although elderly persons might have been included, they were not necessarily targeted by the program. A range of policies and practices that support positive behavior changes in healthy lifestyles were also funded (Renehan et.al, 2012).

Screening for more conditions associated with age like impairment of cognition are not routinely carried out as part of the care system apart from lack of consistent primary diagnosis and management regimes. Systematic and comprehensive reviews of tests for screening loss of hearing revealed that people at high risk could be identified even though the benefits related to hearing functions and other health outcomes have not yet been determined. In the same way, there is still not enough evidence on the benefits of screening for sight impairment. Several aspects of an integrated care system seem to have special appeal and are likely to achieve better results among various minority groups. The most productive aspect of this approach addresses the social and cultural needs like the involvement of the family in treatment within the targeted population. The existing empirical proof of the general efficacy of an integrated health care to reduce differences among ethnic and racial minority populations and the improvement of results is not extensive enough because of lack of sufficient data gathering and analysis by employing demographics from ethnic and racial populations as a benchmark (Sanchez et.al, 2012).

However, practices which apply key strategies and are promising exist and they are undergoing successful implementation through health care programmes that are integrated. In recent times, Ell Katon and associates have successfully implemented linguistically and culturally integrated care models that focus on depressive economic and psychosocial causes of stress that have been successfully implemented among patients of Hispanic origin suffering from cancer and diabetes (Sanchez et al., 2012).

Yeung et al. (referenced in Sanchez et al., 2012) also evaluated a collaborative care model that is culturally sensitive which followed the model used by Katon in basic care to treat depression (Sanchez et.al, 2012). . The two frameworks used to provide integrated healthcare to satisfy the requirements of the populations under study took it for granted that the treatment adherence and health beliefs of the patients were informed by both systematic obstacles and powerful social constructs to care. These systematic barriers were proactively addressed by the integrated health care intervention designed by Ell, Katon et al. (Sanchez et al., 2012) which employed interviewers and recruiters who spoke Spanish. They adapted intervention study materials for cultural and literacy content, covered expenses for transportation and reimbursed the patients for successfully completing the interviews for results. The intervention was made up of Master's level bilingual social workers who served as care managers. It also facilitated cultural competency training for support groups and staff in both English and Spanish. Also included was an intervention for supplemental patient navigation that addressed communication barriers in the system and clinics, located patients who had skipped appointments and facilitated access to community resources. Yeoung carried out the same strategies but with a specific emphasis on outreach components and screening because of the presence of remarkable barriers in overcoming the stigma experienced within the Chinese immigrant community (Sanchez et.al, 2012). They also assessed the patients' illness narrative, to understand how people conceptualize their illness while reframing Western definitions of depression into terms that were more culturally relevant.

Field Research and Investigation

According to the plan by NHS it is time for NHS to constructively engage with the private sector. Areas that are particularly earmarked for collaborative work include but are not limited to general temporary care. The government argues that this will take on board both the voluntary and private sectors in helping to make and develop facilities for supporting her strategy for quality rehabilitation and preventive service provision. The Government is also convinced that availing these facilities will assist NHS with its priorities for reducing waiting time and planning for winter (The NHS Plan).

As of 31st March, 1993 a total of 65,000 people living in England had a preserved right to get higher and special rate of support income from which they could purchase efficient care services. But now, it is believed that an estimated 45% of this number might be experiencing a shortage in funds. For that matter, the Government looks forward to empowering the councils to take charge of the care management and assessment of all those who enjoy preserved rights. However, the government does not intend to forcefully relocate anyone from his/her councils and nursing homes against their will; they will be allowed to pay for their personal care in the event that they will not be able to pay for their stay (The NHS Plan).

The Health legislation of 1999 already facilitates NHS and the local councils to collaborate closely, for instance, by pooling resources in order to fund certain care provisions. Either of them can on behalf of the other take the initiative of commissioning services. For provision of integrated care packages, they are free to merge their services (The NHS Plan). It is predicted that in the future, social services will be provided in new environments, for example in General Practice surgeries. Both General Practitioners and staff from social care will work alongside health teams from the communities as part of one huge network for care.

Analysis of Field Research and Investigative Findings

Tackling the prime causes of premature deaths in the post-war period has seen major progress in reducing and addressing risk factors such as smoking cigarettes. New challenges such as overweight and obesity have also emerged and these are likely to pose major health obstacles to the populations in the future. For this reason, social and health care providers continue to carry out a vital role in the improvement of the health of the population by providing easy access to care and evolving their approach in response to the changing priorities. However, the services still struggle to match the pace of the demographic transformations, the rising public and patient expectations and the shifting burden of disease management (Ham et.al, 2012).

Treatment services still command more attention than prevention measures and a lot of care is still provided in nursing homes and hospitals. The aging populations among whom multi-morbidity and long-term conditions represent the stiffest challenges often receive fragmented care or at times their needs are never properly… [END OF PREVIEW]

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