Research Paper: Public Sphere

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Public Sphere

Democratic governance relates to the capacity and opportunity available at the disposal of the citizens for the purposes of engagement in enlightened debate or discussion. Public sphere refers to the opportunity in which citizens of the states discuss and debate on critical aspects of the nation. It provides an opportunity for the transmission of the public opinion thus putting the state in touch with the needs and demands of the society. Public sphere provides an effective and efficient approach in the representation of diverse views and harness to the broad range of expertise on critical issues affecting the nation. Modern democratic entities focus on the adoption and integration of new public spheres and technologies for the purposes of improvement in interactions between the state and the society. The main purpose of this research is to evaluate the existence of the new aspects of public spheres with the aim of evaluating the implications towards empowerment of the citizens, enhancement of democracy, and other components such as re-feudalism.

Question 1

Begin by returning to Habermas's concept of the public sphere. What are its characteristics (all of them) in his formulation and what is its relevance for the concept of legitimate democracy?

Habermas's concept of the public sphere focuses on the explanation of the realm within social life which facilitating the formation and accessibility of the public opinion to all citizens. According to his analysis, the engagement within the public sphere is blind to class positions. Interactions or connections between activists within the context of the public sphere relate to the general interest of the state

. This is an indication that the public sphere is a product of democracy. From this analysis, the concept of public opinion refers to the control and aspects of criticisms in relation to the organized political authority manifested by the public during elections.

According to analysis by Habermas, liberal model of the public sphere is unprecedented in history. Different constitutions are essential in the demonstration of specifications on the role or implementation of liberal model of public sphere

. Habermas also notes the formation of the concept of journalism as a public institution as the main contributor towards the development of public sphere with the main purpose of enhancing public debate or discussion. The modern or contemporary public sphere is characterized by weathering of the critical roles and capacities. This is an indication that the current public sphere focuses on the integration of hidden policies of interests groups. In 20th century, public sphere is weakening with reference to the collapsing of the principles

. The modern public consists of organized people institutionally exerting their influence on the public sphere, debate, and discussion

. Habermas focuses on the illustration of three criteria in relation to the concept of public sphere: inclusivity, domain of common concern, and disregard of status. Public sphere focuses on the promotion of participative democracy thus essential towards the promotion of the aspect of legitimate democracy in the modern society

Question 2

Summarize the importance of news, political argument, and access/participation to the public sphere concept.

News, political argument, and accessibility/participation in the context of public sphere concepts are critical towards the development of the democratic society especially in the modern society. News is vital in the sense that the society members get to know the events, activities, and developments within the state. This is critical towards the formation or generation of public opinion towards construction of effective and valuable concepts with reference to the development of the society

. News is also valuable towards connecting the society members to events, places, and activities they lack control of, thus the opportunity to stay in touch with fantasy. News is an important element of social gathering. This opportunity is valuable for discussion and debate on the public matters and events affecting the development of the nation. It is critical for the individuals to stay in touch with the events and activities of the state. News is an act of journalism, which aims at promoting the development of democracy in the modern society. Journalism through news content focuses on the promotion of good governance as watchdogs to the operations and activities of the state. This provides an opportunity for the development of good governance and accountability in interactions between the state and the society

. "The media should inform democratic decisions by helping citizens learn about the world, debate their responses to its, and reach informed decisions about what course of action to adopt" (Dahlgren 1991, pg. 1). This is an indication that news is vital towards the growth and development of democracy and good governance in the modern society by increasing accessibility to vital information.

Political argument and participation are also critical concepts towards promotion of participative democracy and effective governance in the modern society. It is also essential for the government to adopt and implement measures or mechanisms towards encouraging citizens into taking part in valuable discussions and debates. Accessibility to information is crucial to the development of public opinion or the concept of public sphere

. This is because of its ability to enable the citizens form valuable and informed public opinion for the purposes of realization of the goals and objectives of good governance. It is also vital for the citizens to have accessibility to information for the purposes of staying in touch with the developments, activities, and events within the nation. This is critical towards realization of the goals and targets of the public sphere institution in the modern or contemporary society.

Question 3

Briefly summarize the challenges to the public sphere concept from elite anti-democrats, the rise of PR and the consumer society, and the professionalization of political communication.

According to Habermas, public sphere is a product of democracy. This is an indication that democracy focuses on the promotion and development of public sphere for the purposes of good governance and accountability in the modern society. There are various challenges in relation to the public sphere concept under the influence of elite anti-democrats. One of the negative influences of the elite anti-democrats on the development or promotion of the concept of public sphere emanates from the aspect of journalism. The integration of the concept of private ownership to the institutions of media or journalism in the modern society affects the development of the public sphere

. This is because of the limitation of the freedom of speech and interaction through implementation of various policies hindering free and fair representation of the opinion. It is also ideal to note that anti-democrats focus on the implementation of laws and policies hindering accessibility of information and news content to the public. This is vital towards limitation of interaction and connection between the society and events, activities, and developments across the nation.

The rise of Public Relations and consumer society are also challenges to the development and promotion of public sphere. This is because of the limitation of accessibility to valuable and accurate information to the society thus enhancing interaction between the state and the society. It is also essential to understand the role of public relations towards alleged protection of the consumers or citizens from valuable information. The society focuses on the implementation of the valuable information into effective and efficient interaction with the society. This is because of the effectiveness of the information towards enhancing accountability and transparency in the delivery of services and products by the state to the society members. The alleged protection of the consumers by the aspect of public relations proves to hinder realization of the goals and objectives of the concept of public sphere

Another hindrance to the realization of the goals and objectives of the concept of public sphere is the implementation professionalization of political communication. This relates to the adoption and integration of adequate and valuable ways of communicating with the public thus minimizing accessibility of the information to the consumers or citizens. This is an indication of hurdles minimizing the development public sphere or opinion on the events, activities, and developments within the state or economy. In the modern society, politicians focus on displaying information or words filtered through a team of public relations experts, campaign assistants, and communication consultants. This indicates that politicians seek to connect with the masses thus incorporation of the words the society members wants to hear. This also relates to fabrication of the speeches of the politicians thus inability of the political activists to express their own speeches towards interaction with the masses. It is also essential to note that this aspect of professionalization of political communication will hinder realization of the concept of freedom of speech and public sphere.

Question 4

A. what are the ways in which communication technologies and practices (explain the difference) have created the possibility and reality of transnational, if not global, public spheres, publics and counter-publics?

Communication technologies and practices have critical roles in the realization of transnational, global, public spheres, and counter-public institutions in the modern society. Communication technologies refer to… [END OF PREVIEW]

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