Quality of Life Among Tawau Research Paper

Pages: 25 (8383 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: ≈ 419  ·  File: .docx  ·  Level: Master's  ·  Topic: Anatomy


On the other hand, the tibia has two sockets (slightly cup-shaped) to meet the femoral condyles. A healthy knee alignment has femoral condyles that rest evenly on the tibia as well as applying evenly to both sides. However, knee deformity could lead to asymmetrical force distributions. A valgus (knock-kneed) deformity occurs when the knees closer together than normal. These deformities could lead to asymmetrical degeneration of the knee cartilage leading to osteoarthritic knee.

On the other hand, knee OA could occur due to the problem with the backbone.

Backbone of an individual is made of combination of bone structure. The backbone is generally referred as vertebral column that supports the body weight, and 33 vertebrae bone are made up of vertebra column. Apart from the bone, highly sensitive nerves, flexible ligaments and tendons are also supporting the back. Muscles also provide source of power for movement. ( Walker, 2012). Moreover, ligaments and fibrous tissue link bones together. While tendons connect muscle to disc and bones, blood vessels provide adequate nourishment to all part of the body that assist in the movement of body mechanism. Knee OA may occur if there is an injury in any of this body part. While the injury to ligaments, muscles, and tendons are not generally being considered serious, however, injury to bone, nerves, and blood vessels may cause a serious problem which may ultimately lead to KNEE pain (Walker, 2012). However, normal posture is an effective method to manage and reduce the knee OA.

1.4: Normal posture

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Normal posture is an effective strategy to manage a knee OA. Having a normal posture is to keep the body in line with the neighboring parts. Proper and normal posture assists in keeping all part of the body balance. However, identification of normal posture that could reduce the knee OA is very critical. (Mayo Clinic, 2013).

First, standing up straight is best method to maintain a normal posture. An individual is likely to have a health and strong spine when practicing a healthy posture. When standing, it is advisable to:

Hold chest high.

Keep the shoulders back and relaxed.

Pull in the abdomen and buttocks.

TOPIC: Research Paper on Quality of Life Among Tawau Assignment

Keep the feet parallel, and Balance the weight evenly on both feet.

Good sitting position is another method to maintain a normal posture. It is advisable to choose a chair that allows resting both feet flat on the floor. It is also advisable to sit with the back firmly against the chair as well as stretching the head towards the ceiling. It is critical to keep shoulder in the same position to maintain a normal posture, and avoid bending the back. (Mayo Clinic, 2013).

1.5: Poor Posture

Poor posture could lead to a short-term and long-term damage to knee and leading to knee osteoarthritis. Sitting without having something to support the back is one of the bad postures. Without support when sitting down, an individual could develop a knee pain. Moreover, couching on sofa for too long could put a strain on the ligament and muscles. Moreover, sitting for extended period could make the muscles to become stiff and get tired. Moreover, poor sitting position could also interfere with circulation and make the body to receive lower oxygen. Thus, an individual is at high risk of developing a knee OA with poor posture. Bending the back while walking or while standing is another example of poor posture. This practice could lead to a knee pain as well as leading to imbalance in an individual posture.

2: Review of literature

This chapter provides the literature review to enhance greater understanding on the search strategy used in identifying the academic research papers used to prepare this project. Moreover, the literatures are reviewed to explore the rate and prevalence of knee osteoarthritis, and the rate at which knee osteoarthritis affects the quality of life of people. More importantly, the study provides the elaborate discussion on how physiotherapy intervention ameliorates well being of people suffering from knee osteoarthritis.

"Given the large body of evidence demonstrating the bene-cial clinical effects of physiotherapy intervention in people with knee OA of varying severity, exercise therapy is regarded as the cornerstone of conservative management and is recommended by clinical guidelines." (Page, 2011 P. 141).

The paper continues by being more precise and discus the knee osteoarthritis problem among the staff of Tawau Hospital and the strategy that has been implemented to treat patients Osteoarthritis at hospital's Physiotherapy Unit.

2.1: Search Strategy

Search strategy is the procedure this thesis employs to identify the academic and professional papers used to complete this study. The researcher searches for the academic and professional papers from search engines such as Google and the study uses combination of key words, and phrases to search for academic and professional resources from the search engines. Typically, the standard keywords used in searching for paper include knee pain, knee osteoarthritis, osteoarthritis knee pain, Quality of life, Active Person, and Age. The researcher also uses the following phrases to search for resources from the search engines. The phrases include anatomy of knee osteoarthritis, manual handling, quality of life (QOL), prevalence of knee osteoarthritis, normal posture, poor posture, rate of occurrence of knee osteoarthritis, nursing role, physiotherapy intervention and other phrases to locate the academic and professional resources from the search engines. To identify research paper tailored to the research topic, the researcher also searches the papers from Google Scholars because the Google Scholars contain academic and professional paper written by top quality writers from all over the world.

Moreover, the study searches for the standard keywords and follow the procedures devised by the EPPI-Centre (2002) center. From the EPPI-Centre register reviews, the researcher uses the standard keywords to search for the impact of Osteoarthritis (knees) on the quality of life of people, knee pain, and anatomy of knee pain, manual handling good and poor posture. Moreover, the study also searches the data from specialized database. Typically, systematic searches were conducted from specialized database such as Medical journals, Nursing Journals, MEDLINE, and PUBMED. The specialized searching is combined with hand searching of journals. Moreover, the study conducts searches from ERIC and Social Science Citation Index starting from 2005 onwards.

2.2: Rate of Occurrence of Knee Osteoarthritis

"Knee Osteoarthritis results from mechanical and idiopathic factors that alter the balance between degradation and synthesis of articular cartilage and subchondral bone" (Brigham and Women's Hospital, 2009 P. 1). Waterman et al. (2012) define knee osteoarthritis as the pain between ribs and the top of the leg. Typically, knee osteoarthritis is an important public health problem common among adult ages of 40 years and above. An estimate 1.48 billion per year of incident rate of knee osteoarthritis has been recorded. Diagnosis (2012) delivers the global data on the rate of occurrence of knee osteoarthritis. The overall data reveals that China has the highest prevalence of knee pain revealing nearly 28.6 million cases. However, the India is ranked second with nearly 23.5 Million cases of knee OA. The United States is ranked third with nearly 7 Million cases. However, the data reveals that the prevalence of knee OA in Malaysia is approximately 518,878 cases. The data reveals the higher the country population, the higher the prevalence of knee OA in the country. (The overall data of global knee OA is revealed in Appendix 1).

2.3: Prevalence of Knee OA and Manual Handling

Estimation of 2.06 million people from 1.48 billion people suffers from knee OA per year. The result shows that approximately 1.39 per 1000 suffer from knee OA in the United States per year. Typically, knee OA accounts for the 3.15% of all emergence visits in the United States and injury sustained at home represents 65% of the entire knee OA. However, the report by Datamonitor (2012) shows that there are 55.7 million people in the U.S., the UK France, Japan, Germany, Italy, and Spain suffering from knee OA, and major age group suffering from knee OA are between the age of 40 and 59. While Japan is the only country that will record a decrease in the knee OA in the next ten years, however, the United States is likely to record an increase in the incidence of knee OA within the next ten years.

2.4: Causes

Moskowitz, (2009) argues that obesity is one of the major causes of knee OA. People with obese body suffer from knee OA because of their body mass. Moreover, the lifestyle variables such as smoking, engaging in the manual labor, phenotype and sex -related conditions also lead to the risk factors. However, obesity is the major risk factor that leads to the knee OA among people. One of the burdens that always befall people suffering from knee OA is pain. Typically, knee OA is the twelfth cause of disability among men and seventh cause of disability among women. However, knee OA is the fifth largest cause of disability among people aged between 65 and 74 years of age. Generally, knee OA represents one of the four largest causes… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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