Research Paper: Quality of Life Indicators

Pages: 14 (4596 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 10  ·  Level: Doctorate  ·  Topic: Urban Studies  ·  Buy This Paper

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[. . .] A ranking ratio estimation procedure resulted in two weights being assigned: A weight to each sample person record and a weight to each sample housing unit record.

Level of Aggregation -- Reports are released for specified geographic areas, and all the same set of statistical, legal, and administrative entities as those addressed in previously published Census long form, including the nation, the states, counties, minor civil divisions, incorporated places, census tracts, and American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) areas, among others.

Data Collection Period -- Data collection is continuous. Reports are released annually rather than every decade as with most reports produced by the U.S. Census Bureau.

Date Reports -- 2000 to 2011 -- The ACS publishes data on the U.S. Census Bureau's American FactFinder website in 1-year, 3-year, and 5-year tranches.

Indicator Response #3: Error / Reliability / Validity

Sources of Random / Non-Random Error -- The ACS survey data collection and analysis process includes steps taken to address sources of nonsampling error, including measurement errors, coverage error, non-response error, and errors that may be the result of data capture and data processing.

Data Source Inclusion of Error Estimation Measure Substantive statistical techniques are used in the ACS survey to measure and address estimation error. A complex weighting formula is used to obtain good data for sample person, household and group quarters persons, and sample housing units (HU).

Concept / Term Definition -- Subject definitions are used throughout the research and the databases provided by ACS.

Values Mutually Exclusive / Cumulatively Exhaustive -- Subject definitions are crafted to eliminate confusion about terminology and are pilot tested.

Inter-rater Reliability -- The Content Test evaluated alternatives for items with low scores on the Content Re-interview Survey.

Respondent / Coder Access to Information -- The Content Test evaluated alternatives for items that showed any indication of a problem, including low reliability.

Internal Consistency -- The Content Test evaluated alternatives for items that showed any indication of a problem, or any threats to reliability or validity.

Agreement Among Data Stakeholders -- Through the Interagency Committee for the ACS oversaw the review of the ACS instrument by more than thirty Federal agencies. Subcommittees further worked to specifically improving questions and response categories, and also provide input to the Census Bureau SMEs and statisticians who were the authors of the Content Test and its evaluation criteria. 2006 Content Test. Retrieved http://www.census.gov / acs/www/methodology/2006_content_test/

Face Validity -- The Content Test evaluated alternatives for items that showed any indication of a problem, or any threats to validity

Content Validity -- The Content Test evaluated alternatives for items that showed any indication of a problem, or any threats to validity

Criterion Validity / Concurrent Validity

Concept Stability -- The Content Test included testing of new topics proposed by other federal agencies for inclusion in the ACS data, and all new items were subject to the same level of analysis.

Analysis Stability -- Any changes in analysis were addressed statistically.

Indicator 22 -- Number of Foreclosures

Indicator Response #1: Definition & Measurement

Concept Measured by Indicator -- Number of foreclosures measures the effects on families, neighborhoods and communities of converging financial and economic variables, such as the sub-prime loan fiasco, the recession, the unemployment rate, and so forth. Number of foreclosures is also an indicator of the increasing rate of overburdened renters as households that have experienced foreclosures tend to move to rental housing, which has a rental cost increase rate (approaching 50% of gross median income) of nearly double that of mortgage rates. Joint Center for Housing Studies of Harvard University. Retrieved http://www.jchs.harvard.edu / publications/recent_publications.html

Concept Measurement -- The number of foreclosures, as defined by Virginia Department of Housing and Community Development, U. S Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) and Mortgage Banker Association equals the percentage of borrowers' mortgage in foreclosure divided by total homeowner loans in a single year. Number of foreclosures is expressed in number and percentage rate of foreclosures in a given period of time (CY, FY or QTR).

Variable Scale. The variable scale is a ratio of homeowner foreclosures to total homeowner loans for period X.

Concept Importance -- Foreclosures influence the economic, social and fiscal status of families, neighborhoods and communities and identify emerging issues. Foreclosures can deter commercial investments in an area and make home resale difficult. The number of foreclosures in the City of Alexandria impacts family stability, vacancies rates, property values, crime rates, and neighborhood / community life. The degree of impact caused by the foreclosure problem is difficult to estimate in Alexandria. Nevertheless, the goal of the City of Alexandria is to forestall future foreclosure problems by reviewing relevant existing laws and regulations to identify areas where adjustments may be needed.

http://www.wbjournal.com/article.php

http://portal.hud.gov/hudportal/HUD

http://alexandriava.gov/finance/info/

Concept Operational Definition -- Foreclosures occur when a homeowner is unable to make principal and/or interest payments on his or her mortgage, causing the lender to seize and sell the property according to the terms of the mortgage contract. New foreclosures are those that occur in a specified quarter and have not previously been counted. Investopedia. Retrieved http://www.investopedia.com/terms/f/foreclosure.asp#ixzz1bBofrgq9

Indicator Response #2: Source of Data

Data Source Identification -- The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development provides databases and reports on the impact of foreclosures on neighborhood crime, family life, resale values, and so on.

Data Source -- U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development

Data Collection -- Data on foreclosures is obtained from banks and building society, and is aggregated by and HUD.

Unit of Observation -- The unit of observation is a single-family residential unit, or a duplex or triplex.

Level of Aggregation -- New foreclosure rates are reported by city, county, regional, state, and national levels. HUD reports for foreclosure rates may be regional.

Data Collection Period -- New foreclosure rates are reported monthly, quarterly, and annually.

Date Reports -- 2000 to 2011 -- New foreclosure rates reports usually occur up to four times per year, on a quarterly basis.

Indicator Response #3: Error / Reliability / Validity

Sources of Random / Non-Random Error -- The HUD housing survey data collection and analysis process includes steps taken to address sources of nonsampling error, including measurement errors, coverage error, non-response error, and errors that may be the result of data capture and data processing.

Data Source Inclusion of Error Estimation Measure -- Substantive statistical techniques are used in the HUD housing survey to measure and address estimation error. A complex weighting formula is used to obtain good data for sample person, household and group quarters persons, and sample housing units (HU).

Concept / Term Definition -- Subject definitions are used throughout the research and the databases provided by HUD.

Values Mutually Exclusive / Cumulatively Exhaustive -- Subject definitions are crafted to eliminate confusion about terminology and are pilot tested.

Inter-rater Reliability -- HUD inter-rater reliability scores on housing surveys fall within an acceptable range.

Respondent / Coder Access to Information -- Question and answer forums are available online for all coders of data. Pilot testing of items is conducted to ensure reliability.

Internal Consistency --HUD evaluated alternatives for items that showed any indication of a problem, or any threats to validity

Agreement Among Data Stakeholders -- Question and answer forums are available online for all coders of data. Pilot testing of items is conducted to ensure reliability

Face Validity -- HUD evaluated alternatives for items that showed any indication of a problem, or any threats to validity

Content Validity -- HUD evaluated alternatives for items that showed any indication of a problem, or any threats to validity

Criterion Validity / Concurrent Validity -- HUD evaluated alternatives for items that showed any indication of a problem, or any threats to validity.

Concept Stability -- HUD evaluated alternatives for items that showed any indication of a problem, or any threats to validity.

Analysis Stability -- HUD evaluated alternatives for items that showed any indication of a problem, or any threats to validity.

Indicator 39 -- Number of New / Affordable Rental Units in New Developments

Indicator Response #1: Definition & Measurement

Concept Measured by Indicator -- Housing experts agree that households should limit their housing or rent costs to 25 to 30% of their annual earned incomes. John D. And Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation. Retrieved http://www.macfound.org/site/apps/nlnet / content2.aspx?c=lkLXJ8MQKrH&b=1135955&ct=4620007

Concept Measurement -- For a household in which one person is the breadwinner, working a full-time minimum wage job, the annual household income would be approximately $10,712 annually (as of 2006), making a monthly rental payment of $268 affordable.

Concept Importance -- Affordable housing measures are important for determining supply and demand that can influence federal housing projects and subsidies. Much affordable housing is privately owned and does not receive a government subsidy. About 3 million housing units have been developed by government-backed financing. Approximately half of these units receive ongoing rent assistance. In addition, the federal government provides and funds about 2 million vouchers for use by renters to reduce the costs of housing that is sensitive to the market rated. Another 1.2… [END OF PREVIEW]

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