Research Paper: Race and Gender Discrimination Multicultural

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[. . .] The figures top out at 84, 442 in the fiscal year 2002 and were at their lowest numerical figure during the fiscal year of 2005, with a reported 75,428 cases (Bohlander 125). These are still a significant amount of cases considering that employment laws and regulations have been in place for many years. The EEOC should not bear all the responsibility in preventing employee and applicant discrimination cases. Leaders in all types of industries should work, train and ensure that regulations are followed. Laws that protect the Civil Rights of workers have been implemented for decades; The Equal Employment Opportunity Act was specifically created in order to prevent discrimination on the basis of race, and sex amongst other determining factors. It was created to reverse a long historical trend of sexual discrimination against women, and that of racial discrimination against minorities. According to the information provided by Bohlander, cases of discrimination based on sex and race presented the largest and most significant percentage every year from 2001 until 2007. This is something that must be addressed, many people erroneously believe applicant and employee discrimination based on sex and race is an archaic, prehistoric and rare occurrence, this does not appear to be the case.

Our contemporary multi-cultural experience can be felt and seen in all aspects of life, cities and states are more diverse than ever. Television shows, pop-culture, music, movies, sports and nearly all other public endeavors attempt to present an image that excludes minorities. Some of the most influential and powerful positions in politics and business are held now held by minorities. It is no longer uncommon to see minorities at the helm of important agencies or corporations, take our current president for example.

Taking this into account can provide a false sense of security when it comes to employment discrimination. Today minorities are receiving college degrees at a rate never before seen, more than half of all college students are now women. This gives people the sense that all is well and that there is no need to fear applicant and employee discrimination, which is not totally true. Walter Vertreace, a Human Resources Consultant from Philadelphia Pennsylvania is of the opinion that there is still much work to be done, in regards to preventing discrimination based on race and gender. He is the former president of the New York State Advisory Council on Employment Law, and has worked to ensure equal employment opportunities for over 30 years. Vertreace believes that discrimination based on race and gender is very much alive in America today. To evidence his opinion he cites the fact that The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, the agency responsible for enforcing the federal anti-discrimination laws, has reported that the number of charges reported against private employers has increased by more than 13,000 (Vertreace 2). He also states that a more than a third of the cases reported to the EEOC, were presented on the basis that alleged race discrimination had occurred on the part of the employer.

Multicultural Diversity in the Workplace

As it relates to the hospitality industry it is imperative that human resources professionals need to work to uphold the law using all the tools and resources that are at their disposal. One of the intentions of the Equal Employment Opportunity Act is to support the noble and humanistic idea that all people have equal rights to seek out social opportunities in life, one of these very important opportunities is employment.

Abraham Pizam points out that in some instances equal employment opportunity can only be achieved, if groups that were "previously discriminated against, experience positive discrimination" (Pizam 211). The "positive discrimination that Pizam refers to is the use of Affirmative Action, which attempts to repair the imbalance of the existence of minorities and women in the workplace. Many companies, corporations and groups especially those that reside within the hospitality industry are now tied and dependent on a global economy. Hotels, restaurants, cruise ships, and airlines are all dependant on the global economy due to the diversity and multi-cultural make-up of their clientele. Pizam believes that in situations like this "effective diversity management is paramount for success. Moreover, ignorance can have significant costs, in both financial and human terms; this is a key issue for the hospitality industry" (Pizam 213). Pizam believes that this is a key issue because of the significant numbers of women and minorities working in the hospitality industry (Woods, 2002).

During the past two decades of the 1990's and the 2000's the racial, ethical and gender composition of the workplace and the educational systems has been rapidly changing. The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission is taking steps to ensure that diversity is strong within the workforce. According to Hansen Fay "the EEOC now reminds employers that they might be in violation of Title VII, if a statistically racial disparity results, from recruiting exclusively from predominantly White school or Black schools" (Fay 23). Now more than ever minorities account for a large percentage of these populations. Currently institutions of higher education, especially those that specialize in preparing students for careers in the hospitality industry are focusing on Running Head: Insert Here preparing them for a multicultural and diverse workforce. According to Matt A. Casado dealing correctly and appropriately with a diverse workforce is "a topic of paramount importance because of the continuing changes taking place in The United States' ethnic profile and because of the effects of globalization on business practices" (Casado p.2) The hospitality industry has for a long time had, and will most likely for a time to come, still have a high percentage of minorities working in those fields. Now students in higher education programs with aims to enter into management positions in those fields are also made up of large percentage of minorities. This is a positive development for both the hospitality industry and for minorities, given the diverse and multicultural nature of the business. This however, does not mean that all is fine and well, human resources professionals and managers in the hospitality industry must continue to work diligently to ensure that minorities are not discriminated against in any respect and that the regulations specified in the Equal Employment Opportunity Act are upheld. It is important to consider that minorities are diverse and different, a group of people may be considered minorities, but they may be composed of a wide ranging and diverse set of individuals from different races, genders, cultures, religions etc. So it is imperative that everyone understands that the EEOA was designed and created to protect individuals from the tyranny of those in powerful and influential positions. By respecting and upholding these law the chances of having a healthy, productive, effective and successful workplace increase especially if the workplace resides within the hospitality industry.

Sex discrimination

Similar to gender and race discrimination sexual harassment which is defined by The Civil Rights Acts of (1964 and 1991), is investigated and monitored by The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. Also, like gender and race discrimination in the workplace, it is not an uncommon occurrence. Sexual harassment is a topic that is not comfortably and openly discussed as much as it should be, this is due to the perception that people have of it being a taboo subject. However, sexual harassment is an issue that must be addressed and taken very seriously, especially in the hospitality industry where significant amounts of females make up the workforce. According to the EEOC about 15,000 cases of sexual harassment are reported yearly (Katz). Christine Kane -- Urrabazo claims filed with the EEOC are not only a problem for the company as whole. She claims that what many managers and HR managers fail to realize that they hold the responsibility for the actions of their employees whether they are aware of them or not. This is why it is vital that human resource managers and professional familiarize themselves with the laws and regulations of the EEOA and also what specifically can be deemed sexual harassment. In any workplace employee satisfaction can be said to be determined by two different types of factors. Frederick Herzberg was known to have identified these two types of factors as (1) satisfiers and motivators and (2) dissatisfiers or hygiene factors (Herzberg1959), they are described in detail by Urrabazo in her publication on sexual harassment. Essentially what the first set of factors represents are internal elements that an employee can control or directly change and affect. The second sets of factors are those that an employee has little or no control over, like the atmosphere, environment and conditions of a workplace. Sexual harassment negatively

Age discrimination

No Industry is removed for allegations of Ageism; reports surface and originate from a variety of fields. Even in the fields of higher education reports of alleged age discrimination have been investigated by the EEOC. According to Monica F. Jacobe in 2004, a part-time lecturer at Wilbur Wright College… [END OF PREVIEW]

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Race and Gender Discrimination Multicultural.  (2011, February 22).  Retrieved July 18, 2019, from https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/race-gender-discrimination-multicultural/6477135

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"Race and Gender Discrimination Multicultural."  Essaytown.com.  February 22, 2011.  Accessed July 18, 2019.
https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/race-gender-discrimination-multicultural/6477135.