Race Minority Groups in America Native Americans Essay

Pages: 5 (1651 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: ≈ 10  ·  File: .docx  ·  Level: College Junior  ·  Topic: American History

Race

Minority Groups in America

Native Americans who live in the United States are the original people of North America within the borders of the current continental United States, parts of Alaska, and in Hawaii. They are made up of many, distinctive tribes, states, and ethnic groups, many of which continue to exist as integral political societies (Johansen, 2005).

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After the original colonies broke away from Great Britain and set up the United States of America, President George Washington and Henry Knox put together the plan of civilizing Native Americans in groundwork for United States residency. Incorporation, whether on their own or required, became a regular rule through American administrations. Throughout the 19th century, the philosophy of Manifest destiny became essential to the American nationalist progress. Development of European-American populations after the American Revolution resulted in growing pressure on Native American lands, fighting among the groups, and rising stresses. In 1830, the U.S. Congress passed the Indian Removal Act, allowing the government to reposition most Native Americans of the Deep South east of the Mississippi River from their homelands to make way for European-American expansion from the United States. Government bureaucrats believed that by reducing the variance between the groups, they could also help the Indians endure. Remnant groups have offspring living all through the South. They have structured and been restructured as tribes since the late 20th century by quite a few states and, in some instances, by the federal government (Johansen, 2005).

TOPIC: Essay on Race Minority Groups in America Native Americans Assignment

The first European-Americans came across western tribes as fur traders. As United States growth arrived into the American West, settler and miner migrants came into rising disagreement with the Great Plains tribes. These were compound nomadic cultures founded on using horses and traveling seasonally to hunt bison. They carried out strong confrontation to American incursions in the years following the American Civil War, in a sequence of Indian Wars, which were common up until the 1890's. The advent of the transcontinental railroad amplified pressures on the western tribes. After a while, the U.S. required a series of treaties and land cessions by the tribes, and founded reservations for them in a lot of western states. U.S. agents encouraged Native Americans to accept European-style farming and similar pursuits, but the lands were frequently too poor to sustain such uses (Calloway, 2009).

Modern Native Americans today have an exclusive association with the United States because they may be member of nations, tribes, or bands of Native Americans who have independence or sovereignty from the administration of the United States. Their societies and cultures thrive within a larger population of offspring of immigrants: African, Asian, Middle Eastern, and European peoples. Native Americans who were not previously U.S. citizens were granted citizenship in 1924 by the Congress of the United States (Calloway, 2009).

African-Americans also known as Black Americans or Afro-Americans and before that as American Negroes are citizens or residents of the United States who have origins in any of the black populations of Africa. Unlike the Native Americans they were not born here but ended up here from Africa. In the United States, the terms are normally used for Americans with at least limited Sub-Saharan African ancestry. Most African-Americans are the direct offspring of captive Africans who endured the slavery era inside the borders of the current United States, even though some are or are descended from immigrants from African, Caribbean, Central American or South American countries (Anderson and Stewart, 2007).

African-American history begins in the 17th century with indentured servitude in the American colonies and develops onto the election of an African-American as the 44th and current President of the United States. Between those milestones there were other dealings and issues, both resolved and continuing, that were faced by African-Americans. Some of these were slavery, reconstruction, development of the African-American population, involvement in the great military disagreements of the United States, racial isolation, and the Civil Rights Movement. Currently Black Americans make up the single biggest racial minority in the United States and shape the second biggest racial group after whites in the United States (Anderson and Stewart, 2007).

By 1990 the economic conditions of African-Americans had changed radically over the years. They had become much less concerted in the South, in rural areas, and in farming work and had gone into improved blue-collar jobs and the white-collar segment. They were almost twice as probable to own their own homes at the end of the century as in 1900, and their rates of school presence at all ages had gone up tremendously. Even after this century of change, however, African-Americans were still comparatively underprivileged in the areas of education, labor market achievement, and home possession (Maloney, 2010).

The Spanish-speaking citizens of the United States who were integrated into the country as a consequence of the Mexican War are called Mexican-Americans. Their figures have since gone up as a consequence of immigration. Other Spanish-speaking people came from Cuba and Puerto Rico, and smaller quantities are immigrants from Central and South America and from the Dominican Republic. All together, these people are called Hispanics, or Latinos (The Story of Hispanics in the Americas, n.d.).

Hispanics today make up the fastest-growing ethnic minority in the United States.

They number about 22.4 million in 1992, they make up the second biggest minority in the country behind African-Americans. Almost sixty percent of these Hispanics trace their origin to Mexico. Although Hispanics have experienced less outright discrimination than have African-Americans, some segments of this group have inferior economic and education levels than do the rest of the residents of the United States (The Story of Hispanics in the Americas, n.d.).

The expression Hispanic is not an ethnic explanation. It refers to native language and to cultural background. Within the crowd called Hispanics are peoples of varied ethnic origins. There are African-Americans and American Indians as well as individuals who are only European and whose families have been in the Americas for generations. Because of intermarriage, there are offspring who stand for a mixture of several origins. Hispanics do not automatically regard themselves as a single group since their connections are to their specific national origin. In the instance of many Mexican-Americans, the national origin is inside the United States if their relatives lived in the Southwest before the Mexican War (The Story of Hispanics in the Americas, n.d.).

Puerto Ricans have a different status from other Hispanics in that they are citizens of the United States by birth, whether they were born in their mother country or in the United States. They were given citizenship in 1917 when Puerto Rico became a possession of the United States as a result of the Spanish-American War. They may as a result go back and forth between the island and the mainland without a visas or passport. Mexicans, Cubans, and others must come into the country as immigrants with alien status and must apply for citizenship in the same manner as do any other immigrants (The Story of Hispanics in the Americas, n.d.).

Even though there are Hispanics in most areas of the United States, some areas have particularly large numbers. Eighty-six percent of Mexican-Americans make their homes in five Southwestern states: Texas, California, New Mexico, Arizona, and Colorado. Texas and California make up more than 50% of the total Hispanic populace in the United States. Almost two thirds of Puerto Ricans who live in the United States are in the New York City region, as well as nearby New Jersey. About sixty percent of Cuban Hispanics live in Florida, with the heaviest numbers in Miami. Another twenty percent live in the New York-New Jersey vicinity; predominantly in Union City, N.J. Illinois also has big numbers of Mexican, Puerto Rican, and Cuban Hispanics, typically in the Chicago area (The Story of Hispanics in the Americas, n.d.).… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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