Range Theory Mid Research Paper

Pages: 10 (3055 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 10  ·  Level: Master's  ·  Topic: Health - Nursing  ·  Buy This Paper

SAMPLE EXCERPT:

[. . .] All of these three subjects were passed through the spiritual assessment scale which is used for measuring the spiritual well being. The results showed that all three subjects had positive scores on the items that measured religious practice, faith and spiritual satisfaction. All three gave positive responses regarding the quality of their life and hope for the future. For instance, they were optimistic about dealing with the pains and difficulties, feeling satisfied with love and being loved. Indeed they agreed that they were "just as happy as when younger" (O'Brien, 2001) and quite well satisfied with their lives.

Philosophy and Key Concepts of the Theory

The middle range theory of spiritual well being in illness is based on the idea that a human person who possesses a psychosocial and physical nature is also a spiritual being that has ability to accept or transcend the experiences of suffering and pain according to his nature. Nurses have witnessed several cases in which disabled or severely ill patients who have psychosocial and physical deficits, live very productive and positive lives. This is because they have the ability not only to accept but also to hold their illness through their spiritual resources. Therefore, it is necessary to identify, support and strengthen the influence of these spiritual resources when relating to chronic illness or disability. The importance of spiritual resources in the improvement of lives of patients resulted in the development of the nursing theory of spiritual well being in illness.

The focal point and the core key concept of the mid range theory of spiritual well being in illness is obviously the spiritual well being. The model shown below is the conceptual model which shows that a sick person has an ability to find spiritual meaning in the experience of his illness which leads to the outcome of spiritual well being for him. The capacity of the ill person to find the spiritual meaning from his time of suffering illness is affected by a number of different factors.

A Conceptual Model of Spiritual Well Being in Illness

Source: Jones and Bartlett Learning, Chapter 4

The first and most important factor is the personal religious and spiritual attitude and behaviour of the ill person which affects his perception of the spiritual meaning. These behaviors and attitudes include those variables that are related to the personal faith of the person, his spiritual satisfaction and religious practices. The personal faith of the person not only means his belief in God but his trust in the powers of God and God's ability to provide health and strength. If an ill person believes in God but lacks trust or does not have a feeling to accept God's love, then he may consider this illness as an unwanted burden on him or a punishment.

The spiritual contentment includes having feeling of being close to the God and security in the God's love and inner satisfaction with the faith. A sick person, who believes in the existence of God, his powers and care for the people, might be fearful from God instead of feeling security in his love. This feeling or situation makes it difficult for the person to perceive his experience of illness as something for betterment. He only considers it as a punishment of his past sins and keeps suffering emotionally.

In case of religious practices, it is not necessary for someone to attend the services at Church or at some other Holy place. The religious practices actually include having support of a community that has strong faith, receiving encouragement from the spiritual companions and maintaining a relationship and communication with God with the help of religious activities and practices. Patients who have relations with faith community with whom they have spent time worshipping together or communities who pray for the sick parishioners during their worships are found to be very positive during the time of suffering and illness.

When a sick person finds spiritual meaning in illness, his religious and spiritual attitude and behaviour is also affected by variables like degree of illness, level of social support from family & friends, care providers and the events that bring stress in his life; for instance financial, emotional and socio-cultural events.

The first and most important step for developing middle range theory is to perform a deep analysis of the key concepts in the model. There are a series of steps identified by nurse metatheorist Walker and Avant (1995) for doing the concept analysis which help in finding out the i) aim/purpose of the analysis, ii) determining the uses of this concept and iii) explaining the empirical referent. The main purpose or aim behind knowing the concept of spiritual well being is to find out and explain its meaning keeping in mind its current usage in relation to the cases experiencing pain and illness. The uses of the concept and it empirical referents can be examined from the current literature, nursing research and practice.

Theory Synthesis -- Four Meta-paradigm Concepts of Nursing

The theory has the description for all the four meta-paradigm or the key concepts of all theories in nursing.

Person or Patient: The theory gives special importance to the spiritual being of the patient.

Environment: The theory considers important to provide such environment to the patient, including his community and family, which helps him achieving peace through spiritual well being during the time of chronic illness or disability.

Health: The main aim or purpose behind this theory is to make ill person think positive which plays an extremely important role in improving his health.

Nursing: The theory pays special attention to the nursing practices of the nurses who can play a critical role in enhancing the spiritual well being of the patients by their attitudes and behaviors.

Practical Use of Mid Range Theory of Spiritual Well Being in Nursing

This theory is very useful in a nursing practice. A nurse can play an important role through effective nursing intervention when treating and helping a sick patient who might be confused regarding a number of spiritual problems. Nurses can help patients in enhancing or returning back to the religious practices that the patients have stopped performing due to the illness experience.

The previous part of the paper showed the diagram of the theory of the spiritual well being in illness in order to explore the relationship between the key concepts and the variables that related to the frame work. These variables control the ill person's ability to get a sense of spiritual well-being during illness.

As a nurse, I have the opportunity to get involved with the factors shown in the diagram model which hinder the ability of the sick people to find meaning during the illness experience. For example, I can serve as a referral agent helping sick or chronic ill persons in getting some relief for a functional injury. Another example could be a case of taking care of an ill person who has problem in hearing. In this situation, I can suggest him or her audiology testing if not done previously and help the patient in obtaining a hearing aid if needed.

Furthermore, I can serve as a bridge for the sick persons helping them to communicate and interact with family and friends incase their relationships have become weak due to the long-term disability or illness. In addition to this, I can perform variety of roles like role of referral agent, counselor or educator in order to help, guide, support and teach ill patients about the concerns that are stressful for them. These concerns can be emotional, social or even financial problems that serve as a hindrance for the patients in achieving spiritual well being in the period of illness experience.

References

Barss, K. (2012). T.R.U.S.T: An affirming model for inclusive spiritual care. Journal of Holistic

Nursing. 30(1). 23-35.

Burkhart, L and Hogan, N. (2008). An Experiential Theory of Spiritual Care in Nursing Practice.

Qualitative Health Research, 18 (7), 929-940.

Chinn, L and Jacobs, K. (1987). Theory and Nursing: A systematic approach. 2nd Edition. St. Louis.

Chinn, L and Kramer, K. (1995). Theory and Nursing. A systematic approach. 4 rth Edition. St. Louis.

Good, M. (1998). A Middle Range Theory of Acute Pain Management: Use in Research, Nursing Outlook

46(3), 119-125.

Henery, N. (2003). Construction of Spirituality in Contemporary nursing theory. Journal of Advanced

Nursing Outlook, 46(3). pp.121-125.

Kim, S., Reed, P., Hayward, R., Kand, Y., and Koenig, H. (2011). Spirituality and Psychological well-being: Testing a theory of family interdependence among family caregivers and their elders.

Research in Nursing and Health, 34(2), 102-117.

McEwen, M. (2002). Middle range nursing theories. In M.McEwen and E.M. Wills (Eds). Theoretical

basis for nursing (pp.202-225). Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins.

McSherry, W. (2006). The Principal Components Model: A Model for Advancing Spirituality and Spiritual Care within nursing and health care practice. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 15, pp.904-

Meleis, I. (1997). Theoretical Nursing. Development and Progress. 3rd Edition. Philadelphia: Lippincott.

Minner-Willams, D. (2006).… [END OF PREVIEW]

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