Research Proposal: Rdrn Tobacco and Its Subsequent Side Effects

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RDRN

Tobacco and its subsequent side effects of addiction have been a contentious issue plaguing society for years. Tobacco, with its addictive qualities makes it an ideal target for young adolescent children. Even more alarming is that marketing aimed primarily to establish a long-term addiction for young adults. Teens, being young are especially prone to establish long-term habits with severe health implications. The youth have a profound desire for independence and maturity. In this quest for adulthood, they often succumb to the influences of smoking tobacco related products. Young adults are particular prone to the influences of popular figures in society. Popular figures on television and in the mass media are often seen utilizing tobacco related products. Baseball athletes in particular can be seen on a regular basis using tobacco related products. This does not bode well for the overall prevention of tobacco use. Therefore, the Right Decision, Right Now campaign was established. Through this campaign and subsequent education material, the effects of tobacco can be mitigated. Currently, the number one health concern in the United States is that of pulmonary disease. These diseases including heart attack, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and stroke are all highly correlated to tobacco related products. Many of the worst forms of cancer are also directly correlated to smoking and tobacco related products. Subsequently, to ease the tobacco related deaths in America, society must first prevent and educated the youth about the consequences of smoking. Below is a chart, depicting the number of smoking related deaths separated by category. Notice a majority of the deaths result from lung and smoking related activities.

Introduction (Program Description, Statute used, Reason program created)

The program is an educational-based platform designed to help young children educate themselves regarding smoking related activities. These educational programs are designed for grades 5 though 9. The program fully encompasses retailers, tobacco companies, and educators to provide a tobacco free environment for youth. In regards to retailers, they are now reinforcing minimum age requirements in regard to selling tobacco related products. Tobacco companies are invested heavily in this program to prevent tobacco use for minors. Finally, educators are used to facilitate the exchange of information to the youth regarding a tobacco free environment. The program under the 1998 master settlement agreement has been tested nationally and has been found to significantly reduce smoking levels in middle school students.

The evaluation program will utilize simple and straightforward techniques to derive relevant information from sources. The purpose of this evaluation is to provide overall understanding of the program, its merits, its faults, and to further increase the impact of products and services. This outcomes evaluation will focus primarily on the outcomes of the program. This will help all stakeholders decipher if the program is conducting the right activities to bring about the results that are desired by clients (Stufflebeam, 1980). The major components of the evaluation are as follows:

1. What major activities are we doing now? Why are we doing them?

2. What benefits are derived from educated middle school children about smoking?

3. What are the specific measurements used to evaluate success?

4. How can this information be easily gathered?

Methods of Evaluation

To effectively evaluate the RDRN program, all stakeholders must be accounted for. Each stakeholder groups has a direct impact on the successful implementation of the RDRN program. Therefore it is prudent to evaluate the program based on various stakeholder viewpoints. The primary methods in which to evaluate the effectiveness of this program are through the use of forms, checklists and questionnaires. These questionnaires provide the framework by which the organization can continue to improve its effectiveness of operations. Furthermore, by actively engaging all stakeholder groups, all parties are involved within the overall decision making process of the organization. This improves buy-in on the part of the organization, ultimately improving overall performance. The methods used in evaluation will consist of interviews, surveys and questionnaires (Rossi, 2004). A sample questionnaire is listed in appendix 1. Evaluations of the program will utilize a variety of data to arrive at a better informed decision. Evaluations on surveys will provide a statistical basis by which to make better informed decisions as well. Through statistical analysis, a better perspective is provided in regards to any opportunities for improvement. Furthermore, these opportunities can be pinpointed to specific locations providing further insight into any discrepancies within the program.

Data Collection and Data Analysis

The program will be evaluated will be based on a culmination of interviews, surveys, questionnaires, data analysis and personal observations. It is best to use a variety of perspectives in order the successful gauge the performance of the program. Interviews provide an unbiased account of the programs services relative to competitors. Interviews also provide a means of improvement as they often provide valuable information as to the underlying operations of the program. Interviews however can be very costly as they require large amounts of time and preparation. As such, interviews will be limited only to key stakeholders including parents, program coordinators, and children.

Surveys and questionnaires are a low cost solution that can ultimately be distributed to all stakeholder groups involved within the organization. As mentioned above, appendix 1 depicts a sample questionnaire to be used. Surveys are particularly insightful as they allow participants to frame their opinions in a manner that best suits them. Surveys also can be evaluated on a statistical basis allowing for further analysis of the overall program.

Potential Problems and Ethical Considerations in the evaluation

Social responsible causes do indeed have their merits; however ethical issues do arise in conducting program evaluations in regards to the effectiveness of the program. Therefore, when conducting a program evaluation it must be done in a very thorough manner, particularly if the information will be used to make strategic decisions. Information, particularly information that is confidential must not be given to the general public without the individuals consent. In regards to teen smoking, the evaluation must be careful not to give personal information to the public. It is possible however, that this principle can be violated through unethical behavior (Bulmer, 1993). Those conducting the evaluation could potentially share experiences with the public that could violate the confidentiality of the evaluation and the forms used to conduct it. RDRN is particularly liable to individuals for infringing on the individual's privacy rights. In particular, leaking confidential information to the public could pose significant monetary action against RDRN. (Ebbutt, 1998).

Another ethical issue to consider when conducting program evaluations is the disruption of the participant's life. Participants are generally required to sacrifice time and energy to participate in program evaluations. Evaluations can be created excessively long in order to confuse participants. This confusion may render results of the evaluation useless. The questionnaire utilized below is straight forward and concise to avoid this confusion (Potter, 2006). In addition, evaluations can be dumbed down to also alter results. In addition, results can be withheld from the public altogether, again, to misinform the public as to the effectiveness of the program. The omission of results is often the response to unfavorable circumstances regarding the evaluation (Potter, 2006). The withholding of important and material information can lead to conclusions that are fundamentally different than what the fact allude to.

Conclusion

In conclusion, the program evaluation will be outcome based. It will focus primarily on aspects that bring about the desired results for clients. In this circumstance, it will focus on the educational activities that help prevent middle school smoking. Furthermore, all stakeholder groups will be consulted in regards to program improvements or discrepancies. Surveys, questionnaires, and interviews will be conducted to assist in this process. Finally, ample consideration will be given to ethical and legal consideration will conducting the evaluations. As mentioned above, the evaluation will not infringe on the privacy rights of others. The information provided, if personal, will not be given to parties who could otherwise profit from the personal information of others. With the insights gained from this evaluation, the program will become stronger and more efficient over subsequent years.

ACTION

TIMEFRAME

RATIONALE

Determine aspects to be measured, how they will be measured, and the means by which to gather information

1 to 2 weeks

This step provides the foundation in which the evaluation can measure performance

Acquire, and schedule all interviews, surveys, and questionnaires.

1-3 weeks

Scheduling when and where the interviews and surveys will be conducted will save time, energy and money. It also allows are stakeholders to be apart of the data collection process

Evaluate Results

2-3 weeks

Depending on the information and data collected, decision can be formed regarding the results

Consider possible changes to the program and how they can be administered

1-2 months

This process will involve all leaders within the organization. This discussion will provide an arena to further improve the organization

Take action to effectively change the program using the information garnered above

3-6 months

After the evaluation has been conducted and decisions made to improve the program, the program… [END OF PREVIEW]

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