Term Paper: Reconstruction Act of 1867 Description

Pages: 5 (1450 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 0  ·  Level: College Senior  ·  Topic: Native Americans  ·  Buy This Paper

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[. . .] Reservation Policy

Description

Federal legislation enacted on June 18, 1934, that restored some Native American lands to tribal ownership and authorized federal funds to encourage Native American businesses. Sponsored by Senator Burton K. Wheeler of Montana and Representative Edgar Howard of Nebraska, the act gave Native Americans residing on reservations the right to adopt constitutions for self-government or to petition the secretary of the interior for a charter of incorporation. The Bureau of Indian Affairs, true to their style, retained a veto power over tribal decisions. To conserve and develop tribal lands, the act ended land allotments in severalty and restored to tribal ownership "surplus lands" that had previously been open for sale to homesteaders. The act also authorized funds to enlarge tribal land holdings, to support Native American education, and to encourage economic development through federal loans.

Haymarket Riot

Description

Haymarket Riot took place during a labor protest rally in Haymarket Square in Chicago on May 4, 1886. The rioting occurred after someone threw a bomb that fatally wounded seven policemen and one civilian. In the rioting, the police and the crowd exchanged gunfire, and many police officers and spectators were wounded. The Haymarket Riot increased anti-labor feelings and weakened the radical element in American labor. It also strengthened the movement toward "pure and simple" unionism that condemned violence.

The riot occurred during a time when thousands of workers across the country were periodically on strike. It developed from a fight between strikers and strikebreakers on May 3, 1886, at an industrial plant in Chicago. Several workers were killed or wounded during the fight, leading some angry labor leaders to call for armed action by workers and a rally in Haymarket Square the next day. These leaders were anarchists, or people who wanted to abolish government authority. When police tried to break up the rally, an unknown person threw the bomb. A riot followed.

On August 20, 1886, eight anarchists were convicted of conspiracy against the police. Although they were never found guilty of throwing the bomb or of causing the deaths, seven were sentenced to death and the eighth to prison. In 1887, four of the seven men were hanged, one committed suicide, and the remaining two were sentenced to prison again. In 1893, the three survivors were pardoned by Governor John P. Altgeld of Illinois, who declared that the evidence had been insufficient to support the charges.

The people's Party (or the Populists)

Description

The Populists supported an increase in the money supply, greater government regulation of business, and other changes they believed would help farmers and laborers. In addition, they called for many reforms to increase the political power of voters. Many Populist leaders were colorful figures who stirred up the people with rousing speeches. The word populist also describes political policies like those of the Populists, especially policies that favor the common people.

Populism began among the farmers of the Midwest, South, and West. During the 1870's and 1880's, these farmers suffered from a combination of falling crop prices and rising operating costs. Railroad freight rates and interest rates charged by lenders caused much resentment among farmers. To address these problems, groups of farmers joined together to form farmers' alliances. The farmers' alliances called for the government to put more money into circulation, either by printing more paper money or by coining unlimited amounts of silver. Such a coinage policy was called free silver. The farmers believed an increase in the money supply would help them get higher prices for their crops. The farmers also wanted the government to regulate the railroads or take them over completely. These demands became the chief goals of the Populist movement.

William Jennings Bryan

Description

William Jennings Bryan was born in 1860 and died in 1925. He was a noted orator and statesman. A Democrat, he ran unsuccessfully for President of the United States three times. Bryan championed popular causes and was proud of his nickname, "The Commoner." Bryan served as Secretary of State when Woodrow Wilson became president in 1913.

Feminism

Description

Feminism is the belief that women should have economic, political, and social equality with men. The term feminism also refers to a political movement that works to gain such equality. This movement is sometimes called the women's liberation movement or women's rights movement.

Booker T.Washington [END OF PREVIEW]

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"Reconstruction Act of 1867 Description."  Essaytown.com.  March 11, 2003.  Accessed March 26, 2019.
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